Who is Babylon the Great?
Part 1

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Authored By  :
Bill Kochman

Published On :
February 28, 1998

Last Updated :
February 19, 2012

NOTE: This article or series has not been updated recently. As such, it may possibly contain some outdated information, and/or ideas and beliefs which I no longer embrace, or which have changed to some degree.

A Great City Which Reigns Over The Earth: Babylon The Great, Filled With The Blood Of Prophets And Saints, Apostle John Wonders, Hermeneutics And Exegesis: Different Methods And Approaches To Biblical Interpretation, Theories Regarding Identity Of Babylon The Great, The Ancient City Of Babylon, Rome And The Roman Catholic Church, Seven Day Adventists, Nostradamus And The St. Malachy Prophecies, Petrus Romanus: Peter The Roman, Global Political And Financial System, New York City And Twin Towers, Children Of God Cult, Israel And City Of Jerusalem, Amalgamation Of All Non-Christian False Religions Into A One World Religion, Global Islam Under Islamic Beast And False Prophet, Ruins Of Ancient Babylon Rebuilt Into A Powerful Modern City In The Middle East, The Importance Of Spirit-Led Interpretations, Beware Of Online Spiritual Poison, Ask God For Wisdom And Discernment, Rightly Divide The Word Of Truth The Lord's Virgin Bride

For literally centuries, Bible scholars and Christian laymen alike have been contemplating about and debating over certain verses which are found in the Apocalypse; that is, the Book of Revelation. In examining the Book of Revelation, we discover that in a variety of verses which can be found in six different chapters, the Angelic Messenger who is accompanying John the Beloved -- or John the Revelator, if you prefer -- discusses a great city which reigns over the Earth. In the seventeenth chapter of the Book, we are specifically informed that the symbolic name of this great city is "Babylon the Great, the Mother of Harlots and Abominations of the Earth", as we see here:

Revelation 17:5, KJV

While Revelation chapters seventeen and eighteen provide us with a detailed description of the mystery woman, Babylon the Great, as well as reveal the means of her destruction, one particular aspect of her character which I would like to call to your attention is found in the following two verses:

"And I saw the woman drunken with the blood of the saints, and with the blood of the martyrs of Jesus: and when I saw her, I wondered with great admiration."
Revelation 17:6, KJV

"And in her was found the blood of prophets, and of saints, and of all that were slain upon the earth."
Revelation 18:24, KJV

As the previous verse reveals, John had a strong reaction upon beholding this mysterious woman. Please note that while in the King James version of the Bible the phrase "wondered with great admiration" is used, this does not mean that John actually admired this mysterious woman, Babylon the Great. After all, as an Apostle of the Lord, who himself had been exiled to the isle of Patmos by the Roman government, and who had no doubt witnessed the death and martyrdom of many of his brothers and sisters in the Lord over the years, it is very doubtful that he would actually admire the wicked city which was responsible for the death of so many Saints and Prophets of God.

The actual Greek phrase that is used in the previous verse is "thaumazo megas thauma". Many of you will recognize the "megas" in the phrase as meaning very large or huge. In this case it is used to signify intensity or degree. When a word is repeated in close proximity -- "thaumazo" and "thauma" -- the intention is to add emphasis to it. In other words, what we are actually being told is that John really marveled when he beheld this woman, Babylon the Great. He wondered who she was supposed to represent. If he actually knew who she was, then there would be no need for the Angelic Messenger to tell him.

Exactly who Babylon the Great is supposed to represent is a subject which has been heavily -- and unceasingly -- debated amongst theologians and Bible students alike ever since the Apocalypse -- or Book of Revelation -- was first made known. Over the years I have heard and read a variety of answers to this intriguing question.

Within Christian eschatology -- that is, the study of the end of all things -- there exist a number of different schools of thought. These points of view and interpretations -- or exegesis -- are in turn determined in large part by one's particular hermeneutic, or method of interpretation. For example, some people interpret prophecy in a purely spiritual or symbolic manner, while others rely upon a more physical, literal interpretation. In the middle are those people who understand certain prophecies as being purely spiritual or symbolic in nature, while others are to be understood and fulfilled in a very literal manner. While I really don't like labels, at this current time, I would include myself in this middle ground.

Having said the above, allow me to briefly share with you the main points of view with which I have become familiar since I first became involved with eschatology -- or the study of last things -- many years ago:

1. Babylon the Great signifies the ancient city of Babylon, which was the capital of the Babylonian Empire. As I point out in other articles, Babylon actually finds its origin in the very distant past, when Nimrod and his followers tried to build a tower which would reach unto Heaven in the land known as Shinar; in other words, the Tower of Babel. Babel actually means "confusion". The metropolis of Babylon also maintained a degree of prominence during the Medo-Persian Empire, which conquered the Babylonian Empire. Today, the ancient empire of Babylonia roughly constitutes the lower half of Iraq.

As I discuss in the series "The Seven Heads", as well as in "Capture of Saddam Hussein and the New Babylon", prior to his death by hanging in 2007, Iraqi dictator Saddam Hussein was in fact excavating and rebuilding the ancient metropolis of Babylon. As I likewise mention in that series, due to his self-imposed delusion, Saddam believed himself to be a direct descendant of King Nebuchadnezzar. Thus he viewed himself as Nebuchadnezzar III. Furthermore, following the custom of the ancient Babylonian kings, Saddam ordered that his name and the date be imprinted on every stone that was used during the reconstruction of that once great city.

2. Babylon the Great represents the literal city of Rome, and the Roman Catholic Church and the Vatican in particular. While this interpretation is quite offensive to Roman Catholics, it is nevertheless quite popular with some Protestant and Baptist denominations. In fact, from my cursory studies of the Seventh Day Adventist church, it becomes quite evident that this is a core tenet of their faith which they embrace quite strongly. One of the obvious points of friction revolves around the fact that the Roman Catholic Church assigned Sunday as the day in which Catholics are to worship the Lord, while Seventh Day Adventists embrace the Jewish Sabbath as the real day in which Christians are to worship the Lord. If you are interested in my personal opinion regarding this issue, I encourage you to read the article entitled "Are Christians Obligated to Keep the Sabbath?".

My understanding is that the Jehovah's Witnesses also hold to the view that Babylon the Great symbolizes the Roman Catholic Church. As I mention in such articles as "Nostradamus: Prophet of God, or Messenger of Satan?", according to the prophecies of one St. Malachy -- which may possibly have been a nom de plume for popular French physician and astrologer Nostradamus -- Pope Benedict XVI was supposed to have been the second to the last Pope. He would be followed by the final Pope -- Petrus Romanus, or Peter the Roman -- who, according to one view, would betray Catholics by compromising with the Beast of the Book of Revelation. Some people go so far as to suggest that this final Pope will be the False Prophet of Revelation chapter thirteen. Of course, as we now know, Pope Benedict XVI abdicated his position as Pope in 2013, and was replaced by Pope Francis, who is the first Jesuit to ascend to the Papacy. In short, there is no Petrus Romanus, as St. Malachy/Nostradamus predicted. One verse which is used by the supporters of this interpretation is the following:

"And here is the mind which hath wisdom. The seven heads are seven mountains, on which the woman sitteth."
Revelation 17:9, KJV

The proponents of this interpretation believe that the woman sitting on seven mountains represents the city of Rome which is said to sit on seven hills. As I point out in the series "The Seven Heads", I believe that there is another possible interpretation of the above verse. Whatever the case may be, the so-called prophecy of St. Malachy concludes that at the end of the reign of the final Pope -- Petrus Romanus -- Rome will be destroyed, as per the Book of Revelation. For more details concerning my personal views regarding Nostradamus and St. Malachy, please refer to the aforementioned article.

3. Babylon the Great symbolizes globalism; in other words, the worldwide financial and political system of our present day. Babylon is epitomized by the United States of America, and by New York City in particular, which holds the economic reins of the world. This interpretation was promoted decades ago by the Children of God cult -- also known as the Family of Love and the Family -- which repeatedly made the headlines during the late sixties and into later decades as well, due to some of their controversial and unbiblical doctrines. For those of you who are old enough to remember, at that time, they distributed a pamphlet which was explicitly entitled "America the Whore".

According to what the Children of God believed back then -- I don't know if they still believe it or not -- America will someday be destroyed by nuclear fire as retribution for the many wars and violent acts she has committed against other nations in order to sustain her lavish lifestyle. While I have no doubt that the Lord will someday judge America for her many sins, I am not in agreement with the doctrines of the Children of God.

A number of years ago while conducting online research, I came across another theory which is directly related to the New York City interpretation. Supposedly, this theory was based on certain obscure Quatrains which are found in the Centuries of Nostradamus, and claimed that the destruction of the Twin Towers on September 11, 2001 was the literal fulfillment of the destruction of Babylon the Great. Just the fact that this theory was based on the Quatrains of Nostradamus -- which can be interpreted in a million ways due to their ambiguity -- motivated me to outright dismiss it as having any real value.

4. Babylon the Great is the spiritual name for the nation of Israel -- and the city of Jerusalem in particular -- which not only persecuted and murdered most of the Prophets which God ever sent to her, but which also murdered the very Son of God when He came to offer the Jews spiritual Salvation. In this sense, all Christ-rejecting Jews can be considered part of Babylon the Great.

5. Babylon the Great represents all modern, false religions which deny the Divinity and Messiahship of Jesus Christ. It may possibly represent an amalgamation of all non-Christian faiths into a One World Religion which will be promoted by the False Prophet. Or, it may possibly be Islam alone, which will take over the world under an Islamic Beast and False Prophet.

6. At some undetermined point in the future, the work which was begun by Saddam Hussein to rebuild the ancient ruins of Babylon -- which are located to the south of modern Baghdad -- will not only be renewed, but a modern version of that ancient city will be built upon the ruins, and will become a powerful city in the Middle East. Alternatively, Babylon may be represented by Baghdad itself. These are topics which I also briefly discuss in the four-part series called "Capture of Saddam Hussein and the New Babylon".

While there are probably other theories and interpretations regarding the possible identity of Babylon, at this current time, these are the only ones with which I am personally familiar. However, I do believe that the previous list includes most -- if not all -- of the most popular and widespread interpretations. The challenge is to determine which one of them is the correct one, if any of them. No doubt, some of you will examine the previous list, and will then quickly conclude that you already know which one of them is correct. But are you certain? Are you able to support your views with the Scriptures?

It is important to realize that understanding ambiguous or nebulous Biblical prophecies is no easy task; not even for those of us who have been studying the Scriptures for many years. Without the assistance and guidance of God's Spirit, a good working knowledge of the Scriptures, at least a basic understanding of ancient history, and the proper resources with which to cross-reference one verse with another, it is basically an impossible task.

Perhaps this is why at this current time, there are so many different interpretations of these prophetic events. As I have mentioned before, it seems that there are as many different interpretations as there are preachers and Bible teachers. Sadly, to the hurt of the Christian Body, some people have a propensity for writing books or Bible commentaries regarding these important topics, without really meeting all of these necessary requirements. The result is that they end up with an interpretation which is sometimes very distorted, totally off-base, and nowhere near the Truth.

I speak from personal observation. I can't tell you how many websites and blogs I have visited in recent years, where the author is rambling on and on regarding what particular verses mean, and he rarely -- if ever -- offers any Scriptures with which to support his views. He just goes on and on with his own thoughts and his own words, in his own spirit, telling us that such-and-such means so-and-so. People like that are so convinced of what they are saying, that in their zeal, they expects you to believe them, just because they say so; and if you ever try to question them, they quickly become upset and offended. Folks, if you ever come across a site such as that, where the author goes on and on like a spigot that cannot be turned off, but where he never quotes the Word of God, I urge you to stop in your tracks and go the other way as quickly as you possibly can.

I am very serious about this. I have come across websites, blogs, a plethora of YouTube videos and Facebook pages which promote nothing but absolute nonsense, New Age psychobabble, false prophecies and other extremely deceptive spiritual poison. As serious students of God's Word, we really need to ask the Lord to give us a good dose of Wisdom and Spiritual Discernment. We need to test the spirits; because the truth is that the Internet can be a very dangerous place without these Gifts from the Lord. Furthermore, we all need to follow the wise advice that the Apostle Paul offered to Timothy when he told Timothy to rightly divide the Word of Truth. Consider the following verses:

"If any of you lack wisdom, let him ask of God, that giveth to all men liberally, and upbraideth not; and it shall be given him."
James 1:5, KJV

"Beloved, believe not every spirit, but try the spirits whether they are of God: because many false prophets are gone out into the world."
1 John 4:1, KJV

"But strong meat belongeth to them that are of full age, even those who by reason of use have their senses exercised to discern both good and evil."
Hebrews 5:14, KJV

"Study to shew thyself approved unto God, a workman that needeth not to be ashamed, rightly dividing the word of truth."
2 Timothy 2:15, KJV

I discuss this topic in more detail in my article entitled "Rightly Dividing the Word of Truth".

While I see nothing wrong with theorizing and speculating as to what certain verses might mean, the real danger is when we lean to our own understanding instead of trusting in the Lord's Spirit, and end up with shaky interpretations which we then try to promulgate as the absolute Word of Truth. In our quest to decipher these prophecies, it is wise to take heed to the following counsel found in the Book of Proverbs:

"Trust in the LORD with all thine heart; and lean not unto thine own understanding. In all thy ways acknowledge him, and he shall direct thy paths."
Proverbs 3:5-6, KJV

If there is one thing of which I am sure, it is that the Lord knows His Word; after all, He gave it, and He inspired it. If there is anyone who can lead us down the right path in our understanding of the Scriptures, He is definitely the One to do it; and He will, if we are yielded to Him, and are able to receive what He shows us. To recklessly put together an interpretation and then proclaim it as absolute truth above all others is the epitome of self-righteous pride. For this reason, I am very prayerful about how I express my views in my articles. If you are an avid reader of my writings, then you will notice that I am quite liberal in my usage of such words as may, perhaps, maybe, possibly, according to my understanding, it seems to me, in my view, etc. This shows the reader that while I have a lot of faith in what I say, it does not necessarily mean that I am right. After all, I am only human, and thus prone to error. I simply do not believe that anyone has a monopoly on the Truth except for the Lord Himself.

There were times in the past when I wasn't so cautious with my words. I was a bit reckless due to people and beliefs I was associated with at the time. As a young evangelist, I thought I knew quite a bit, and I was proud of it. I am reminded of verses such as the following:

"In the multitude of words there wanteth not sin: but he that refraineth his lips is wise."
Proverbs 10:19, KJV

"A fool uttereth all his mind: but a wise man keepeth it in till afterwards."
Proverbs 29:11, KJV

"Be not rash with thy mouth, and let not thine heart be hasty to utter any thing before God: for God is in heaven, and thou upon earth: therefore let thy words be few."
Ecclesiastes 5:2, KJV

"For by thy words thou shalt be justified, and by thy words thou shalt be condemned."
Matthew 12:37, KJV

"And if any man think that he knoweth any thing, he knoweth nothing yet as he ought to know."
1 Corinthians 8:2, KJV

"Wherefore, my beloved brethren, let every man be swift to hear, slow to speak, slow to wrath:"
James 1:19, KJV

As I have gotten older, and have dedicated myself to a closer and more personal study of the Scriptures, I have learned how little I really know. I have also learned that to say something is of the Lord when it might not be, is indeed a grave matter. I take this ministry very seriously, and it is important to me that I am propagating the Truth to the best of my knowledge. It is for this reason that I am constantly updating my articles as the Lord reveals more to me. If He shows me that my previous interpretation wasn't exactly on the mark, I will change it. Unlike some rigid writers who believe their words are written in stone, I do my best to remain flexible and sensitive to the leading of the Lord's Spirit. I don't want to be guilty of leading anyone astray, or causing anyone to stumble or fall away from the Truth. That is the true meaning of the word "offend" in the following verse. It is from the Greek word "skandalizo" meaning to put a stumbling block or impediment in someone's way:

"But whoso shall offend one of these little ones which believe in me, it were better for him that a millstone were hanged about his neck, and that he were drowned in the depth of the sea."
Matthew 18:6, KJV

To understand the mystery of Babylon the Great Whore, you must first realize that throughout the Scriptures, the Lord refers to the true Body of Believers, spiritual Israel, those who have accepted His Salvation, His Church, as the wife or Bride of Christ. The Bible is literally full of verses from beginning to end which serve to clarify this point. Consider the following words of the prophet Isaiah:

"I will greatly rejoice in the LORD, my soul shall be joyful in my God; for he hath clothed me with the garments of salvation, he hath covered me with the robe of righteousness, as a bridegroom decketh himself with ornaments, and as a bride adorneth herself with her jewels."
Isaiah 61:10, KJV

For those of you familiar with the New Testament teachings of Jesus, the above verse describing a bridegroom and his bride should ring a bell. Jesus was quite familiar with the Old Testament Scriptures, so it should come as no surprise that He would incorporate them in His own parables as in the following example:

"Then saith he to his servants, The wedding is ready, but they which were bidden were not worthy. Go ye therefore into the highways, and as many as ye shall find, bid to the marriage. So those servants went out into the highways, and gathered together all as many as they found, both bad and good: and the wedding was furnished with guests. And when the king came in to see the guests, he saw there a man which had not on a wedding garment: And he saith unto him, Friend, how camest thou in hither not having a wedding garment? And he was speechless. Then said the king to the servants, Bind him hand and foot, and take him away, and cast him into outer darkness; there shall be weeping and gnashing of teeth. For many are called, but few are chosen."
Matthew 22:8-14, KJV

As can be seen from the above parable, those who are the True Bride of Christ, are they who have received the gift of Eternal Life which Jesus alone freely offers to all men. The robe or garment His Bride wears is the righteousness we receive when we are washed in the Blood of the Lamb. This righteousness does not come through our own good works, but only through the Sacrifice at Calvary. The following verses help to clarify all of these points:

"Let us be glad and rejoice, and give honour to him: for the marriage of the Lamb is come, and his wife hath made herself ready. And to her was granted that she should be arrayed in fine linen, clean and white: for the fine linen is the righteousness of saints. And he saith unto me, Write, Blessed are they which are called unto the marriage supper of the Lamb. And he saith unto me, These are the true sayings of God."
Revelation 19:7-9, KJV

"Not by works of righteousness which we have done, but according to his mercy he saved us, by the washing of regeneration, and renewing of the Holy Ghost;"
Titus 3:5, KJV

"But if we walk in the light, as he is in the light, we have fellowship one with another, and the blood of Jesus Christ his Son cleanseth us from all sin."
1 John 1:7, KJV

In the Parable of the Ten Virgins in the twenty-fifth chapter of the Gospel of Matthew, Jesus likewise compared His True Church to a multiple virgin bride:

"Then shall the kingdom of heaven be likened unto ten virgins, which took their lamps, and went forth to meet the bridegroom. And five of them were wise, and five were foolish. They that were foolish took their lamps, and took no oil with them: But the wise took oil in their vessels with their lamps. While the bridegroom tarried, they all slumbered and slept, And at midnight there was a cry made, Behold, the bridegroom cometh; go ye out to meet him. Then all those virgins arose, and trimmed their lamps. And the foolish said unto the wise, Give us of your oil; for our lamps are gone out. But the wise answered, saying, Not so; lest there be not enough for us and you: but go ye rather to them that sell, and buy for yourselves. And while they went to buy, the bridegroom came; and they that were ready went in with him to the marriage: and the door was shut. Afterward came also the other virgins, saying, Lord, Lord, open to us. But he answered and said, Verily I say unto you, I know you not. Watch therefore, for ye know neither the day nor the hour wherein the Son of man cometh."
Matthew 25:1-13, KJV

The Book of Revelation follows this same pattern and also describes the one hundred and forty-four thousand sealed servants of God as being spiritual virgins:

"These are they which were not defiled with women; for they are virgins. These are they which follow the Lamb whithersoever he goeth. These were redeemed from among men, being the firstfruits unto God and to the Lamb."
Revelation 14:4, KJV

The above verse will be discussed in more detail later on to make another interesting point concerning the evil influence of Babylon the Great Whore. Even John the Baptist was aware of the spiritual parallel between Christ and His Church, and the role of the bride and the bridegroom. In the third chapter of the Gospel of John, we find the Baptist saying:

"He that hath the bride is the bridegroom: but the friend of the bridegroom, which standeth and heareth him, rejoiceth greatly because of the bridegroom's voice: this my joy therefore is fulfilled."
John 3:29, KJV

Following are a few more verses from the Book of Revelation which discuss the Saints being clothed in white robes of righteousness:

"And when he had opened the fifth seal, I saw under the altar the souls of them that were slain for the word of God, and for the testimony which they held: And they cried with a loud voice, saying, How long, O Lord, holy and true, dost thou not judge and avenge our blood on them that dwell on the earth? And white robes were given unto every one of them; and it was said unto them, that they should rest yet for a little season, until their fellowservants also and their brethren, that should be killed as they were, should be fulfilled."
Revelation 6:9-11, KJV

"After this I beheld, and, lo, a great multitude, which no man could number, of all nations, and kindreds, and people, and tongues, stood before the throne, and before the Lamb, clothed with white robes, and palms in their hands;"
Revelation 7:9, KJV

Another example of feminine symbolism being used in the Scriptures can be found in the twelfth chapter of the Book of Revelation where we find a woman who is being persecuted by a great Red Dragon. We are told that this vile beast represents Satan himself. As to the identity of the woman, there are various schools of thought concerning her. Some suggest that she represents Mary who bore the child Jesus, who was later caught up to Heaven to sit at the Right Hand of His Father. Others suggest that she symbolizes Israel, or possibly the Early Christian church which was persecuted by both the Jews and the Romans. Finally, there are those who believe she may be a symbol of the Church which will persecuted by the forces of the Beast prior to the return of Christ. I will discuss this topic in more detail in a separate article. As I stated earlier, there are many verses throughout the Bible which support this symbolism of God's virgin Bride. For the sake of brevity, I have only shared a few.

Having now established through the Scriptures that the Lord's Church is symbolized as His faithful virgin Bride, let us now consider the negative aspect of a rebellious Bride who has forsaken her spiritual Husband and gone after other lovers, that is, after other gods. What follows are examples of the many verses found in the Old Testament which depict Israel's waywardness, and her rejection of the one true God. The Lord refers to this as spiritual whoredom, or playing the harlot:

"And yet they would not hearken unto their judges, but they went a whoring after other gods, and bowed themselves unto them: they turned quickly out of the way which their fathers walked in, obeying the commandments of the LORD; but they did not so."
Judges 2:17, KJV

"And it came to pass, as soon as Gideon was dead, that the children of Israel turned again, and went a whoring after Baalim, and made Baalberith their god."
Judges 8:33, KJV

"And they transgressed against the God of their fathers, and went a whoring after the gods of the people of the land, whom God destroyed before them."
1 Chronicles 5:25, KJV

"Can a maid forget her ornaments, or a bride her attire? Yet my people have forgotten me days without number."
Jeremiah 2:32, KJV

"They say, If a man put away his wife, and she go from him, and become another man's, shall he return unto her again? Shall not that land be greatly polluted? But thou hast played the harlot with many lovers; yet return again to me, saith the LORD."
Jeremiah 3:1, KJV

"The LORD said also unto me in the days of Josiah the king, Hast thou seen that which backsliding Israel hath done? she is gone up upon every high mountain and under every green tree, and there hath played the harlot."
Jeremiah 3:6, KJV

"And I saw, when for all the causes whereby backsliding Israel committed adultery I had put her away, and given her a bill of divorce; yet her treacherous sister Judah feared not, but went and played the harlot also."
Jeremiah 3:8, KJV

"My people ask counsel at their stocks, and their staff declareth unto them: for the spirit of whoredoms hath caused them to err, and they have gone a whoring from under their God."
Hosea 4:12, KJV

While the above verses are strong in content and may be offensive to some, they are nevertheless a clear depiction of a nation and a Bride who has rejected her true spiritual Husband. For an even more graphic picture of the spiritual whoredoms committed by both Jerusalem and Samaria, you might want to read the twenty-third chapter of the Book of the Prophet Ezekiel. That chapter describes how the spiritual fornication of Israel began in Egypt, and continued all the way to the time of the conquests by both the Assyrians and the Babylonians. What is important to note here is that the Lord considers the rebellion of His Bride to be a very serious matter. When the Prophet Samuel rebuked King Saul and informed him that God had rejected him in the fifteenth chapter of the first Book of Samuel, he compared Saul's stubborn rebellious heart to witchcraft and idolatry:

"And Samuel said, Hath the LORD as great delight in burnt offerings and sacrifices, as in obeying the voice of the LORD? Behold, to obey is better than sacrifice, and to hearken than the fat of rams. For rebellion is as the sin of witchcraft, and stubbornness is as iniquity and idolatry. Because thou hast rejected the word of the LORD, he hath also rejected thee from being king."
1 Samuel 15:22-23, KJV

On another occasion, when prophesying against Nineveh, the ancient capital of Assyria, the Prophet Nahum described the city as being the "mistress of witchcrafts":

"Because of the multitude of the whoredoms of the well-favoured harlot, the mistress of witchcrafts, that selleth nations through her whoredoms, and families through her witchcrafts."
Nahum 3:4, KJV

While the above three verses apply to other events in the Bible, they are nevertheless important because they help us to better understand the Lord's attitude concerning the unfaithfulness of His disbelieving rebellious Wife. As far as He is concerned, she is guilty of performing witchcraft. As an interesting side note, the ruins of Nineveh and Babylon, both of which were heavily steeped into witchcraft, are located in modern-day Iraq.

To reiterate what I stated earlier, once ancient Israel rejected the Lord as her true King, and went astray in building pagan temples to other gods, she lost the Spirit. When the True Lamb of God arrived in the First Century, the Jewish Elders still wanted to continue with their dead rituals and traditions. Amongst students of eschatology, there is the widely-held belief that possibly in the near future, the temple in Jerusalem will be rebuilt. This will of course result in the resumption of the continual burnt offering, that is, the evening and the morning oblations as prescribed by Moses. According to the above verses, surely this will be the epitome of blasphemy and self-righteous rebellion. After all, the True Lamb of God has already been sacrificed for the sins of the world once and for all; and there is no longer any need for animal sacrifices in our modern day. I discuss this topic in more detail in the article "Is Jesus the Only Begotten Son of God?".

Please go to part two for the continuation of this series.

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