Copyright 1994 - 2023 Bill's Bible Basics
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Published On :
April 22, 1997
Last Updated :
February 12, 2018
God's Word Never Contradicts Itself, Ark Anchors On Ararat, Mountain Tops Are Revealed As The Global Water Level Recedes, Formation Of Mount Everest, Continental Drift, Mount Everest And Volcano Theories Are Flawed, Limestone And Marine Fossils On The Summits, Where Did All The Flood Water Go, What If The Polar Ice Caps Melt Again? Climate Change And Kyoto Protocol, 1950 NATO Ark Images, Ron Wyatt And The Durupinaral Dig Site, Bill Fry And Anchor Stone International Archeological Work, The Genesis Apocryphon, Book Of Jubilees And The Sefer Noah, Armenia, Mount Lubar, Elbruz And Mount Elbrus, Conclusions
If there is one that I have always taught, it is that God's Word never contradicts itself. One verse will be further explained by another verse, or another set of verses, either in the same chapter, the same book, or in another book. If there is ever any seeming contradiction, it is more than likely in our own understanding of what is being said.
Well, if the Ark didn't literally sit upon the solid ground in the seventh month, when did it occur? The previous verses make it clear that the tops of the mountains were not seen until the tenth month. That is where we find our answer. It seems then that once the waters had been calmed, God caused the Ark to remain in a more or less stationary position over the mountains of Ararat, while the waters continued to recede for a few months; that is, some seventy to seventy-five days to be precise. It was only then that the Ark actually became physically anchored on the mountains of Ararat. However, even then, it still required about another seventy-five days for the waters to completely recede to the level where the Lord wanted them to be.
Genesis 8:5 clearly tells us that the tops of the mountains were first seen on the first day of the tenth month. You will recall that I mentioned to you earlier that the words "tops" and "mountains" are both plural. Nowhere does Genesis state that only the top of one mountain, or that only the mountains of Ararat were exposed at that time. To reiterate my point, common sense dictates that if the water level receded more or less evenly all around the world, as it more than likely did due to the force of gravity, then depending on the elevation of the mountains which existed at that time, some would appear simultaneously, and some would appear before others, or after others, all around the world.
What about Mount Everest? Did its summit likewise appear as the flood waters receded from the face of the Earth? My view is that it probably did not. In order to understand why I am stating this, we need to ask ourselves a question, and that is this: At what exact point in Biblical and geological time was Mount Everest formed? Was it created when the Lord first raised the dry land from the global ocean in Genesis chapter one? Or did it result from the Earth being broken open during the time of the Flood approximately one thousand, six hundred and fifty years after Creation Week? Is it even possible that Mount Everest did not make its appearance until some point after the time of Peleg? I suspect that the final possibility may be the correct one, and that it is possible that Mount Everest did not form until many centuries after the Genesis Flood, and many centuries after the people were divided by language at Babel.
As you may already realize, according to scientific opinion, Mount Everest, like the rest of the Himalayan mountain range, is believed to have risen from the floor of the ancient Tethys Sea, when the Eurasian continental plate, fueled by what is known as continental drift, collided with what we refer to as the Indian subcontinental plate. This collision of these two great land masses resulted in a severe buckling of the Earth's crust, which led to the formation of the Himalayas. The fact that a portion of Mount Everest is comprised of limestone and dolomite, as well as the fact that fossils of ancient marine animals, such as trilobites, have been found at its summit, also appear to confirm this theory.
This ties in directly with our earlier discussion regarding the supercontinent known as Pangaea, and its division into two smaller land masses known as Laurasia and Gondwanaland. The latter two eventually resulted in seven land masses, and the Indian subcontinent fits right into this scheme. We need to realize that continental drift is an extremely slow, and basically unobservable geological process. In other words, we can't look out our window and see entire continents drifting, or bumping into each other. If we could, we would be in very serious trouble, and I wouldn't even be sitting here writing this article!
So my primary point is this: If the supercontinent, Pangaea, was broken up into smaller sections during the Genesis Flood, or even centuries later after the days of Peleg; and if the process of continental drift took hundreds of years or longer before the Indian subcontinent violently collided with the Eurasian continent to form the Himalayan mountain range, then Mount Everest could not possibly have existed at the time of the Genesis Flood. This clearly demonstrates that Noah's Ark could not have anchored itself to the summit of Everest; and therefore, the aforementioned user's claim is utterly false, and in fact quite ludicrous. The second user's claim about the volcano, which, according to him, did not exist at the time of the Flood, is also a moot point; because nowhere in the Book of Genesis does it state that the Ark landed on the highest peak; that is, on said volcano. As we've already seen, Genesis clearly uses the plural form, and informs us that the Ark landed on the "mountains of Ararat", indicating that more than one mountain top was exposed as the flood waters began to recede.
On the other hand, even if Mount Everest was formed when God first brought forth the dry land from the global ocean in the first chapter of Genesis, it is still a moot point, because again, the Bible clearly states that the Ark settled on the "mountains of Ararat", and not on the Himalayan mountains. As a side note, it may interest you to know that the elevation of Mount Everest continues to rise a few millimeters every year due to the geological forces which were set in motion by God Himself so many millennia ago.
Some people have wondered how it is that limestone layers containing the fossilized remains of marine life, have been found in some of the highest mountain ranges of the world, far away from any sea or ocean. The answer becomes rather easy and clear, once one accepts the Genesis account of a Global Flood. In similar fashion, it is the Global Flood, clearly described in the opening chapters of the Holy Bible, which convincingly explains the presence of complete frozen specimens in the frigid lands of Siberia and elsewhere. Only a flood of global proportions, followed by a sudden drop in temperature, can explain how mastodons and the like could have been so carefully and quickly preserved in the ice, before they had a chance to completely decay and return to their most basic elements. In His Divine Wisdom, is God trying to send doubting humanity a message?
Earlier, we read how God sent a wind to pass over the Earth. We know that God somehow used this wind to cause the flood waters to recede. But have you personally ever given it much thought? We already answered the question "Where did all of that rain come from?", but have you ever considered where it all went afterwards? Obviously, a large portion of the water was used to fill the post-diluvial rivers, streams, lakes, seas and oceans. A certain percentage was also absorbed by the Earth, and now forms subterranean rivers and seas. But do these various places account for all of the rain which fell during those forty days and forty nights? I honestly cannot say. However, another rather interesting, and I dare say, challenging thought, has occurred to me as well. Is it possible that when the Lord sent that wind, that it actually blew the flood waters away from the equatorial regions of the Earth, and towards the poles, where it quickly froze? It is a scientific fact that the Earth's polar ice caps are miles thick. That is a lot of frozen water. So the question arises, "Where did it all come from?".
A closely-related question is this: "Where would all of that water go if it were to melt again? As you may know, one of the current concerns of a growing number of world scientists, is that Climate Change is already causing polar ice shelves, as well as some glaciers, to thaw. I was reading recently were it was said that the permafrost in Alaska, and possibly in Siberia as well, has already begun to melt. These men of science fear that if Climate Change continues -- and they are certain that it will at an ever-increasing rate -- in the coming decades, we will witness a certain degree of coastal flooding, and some low-lying islands will more than likely disappear as well. Not only that, but an increase in coastal flooding will obviously lead to serious coastal erosion.
It is for this very reason that the international agreement known as the Kyoto Protocol, sought to reduce the amount of air pollutants being generated by industrialized nations. It is believed that by reducing heat-generating pollutants in the Earth's atmosphere, Climate Change can also be brought under better control, which will directly affect the health of the Poles, glaciers, coastal areas, etc. Sadly, while the Kyoto Protocol was embraced by a growing number of countries, under the leadership of George W. Bush and the Republican Party, the United States of America staunchly fought against this international agreement for years.
In fact, even under the Clinton administration, the protocol was never ratified by the U.S. Congress. Furthermore, when the Kyoto Protocol was replaced by the Paris Climate Accord in 2015, the Obama administration fought against that as well. While it is true that President Barack Obama did sign onto the agreement, he never submitted it to the Senate for ratification. The administration of Donald Trump has taken it a step further and pulled out of the Paris pact altogether. Ironically, it is a known fact that the U.S.A. is the source of at least twenty-five per cent of the world's total air pollution, even though it is only the home to a fraction of the Earth's total population.
But there is so much more to this amazing story of Noah's Ark and the Genesis Flood, and it has happened in recent times. Consider the fact that since the last century, various claims have been made regarding the alleged discovery of the remains of Noah's great wooden ship.
One claim involves the startling discovery that was made by a NATO aircraft during the 1950s, while it was taking aerial photographs of eastern Turkey, also known as Armenian Turkey, in order to determine Soviet missile activity. To everyone's surprise, what may possibly be the remains of an ancient boat were found at an elevation of about 6,300 feet, in a mountain valley which is located some twenty miles from the summit of Mount Ararat. Locally, Mount Ararat is known as Agri Dagh. The actual dig site is known as Durupinaral, and is located approximately twenty miles from the Russian border. This amazing development was eventually reported in the September 5, 1960 edition of the American magazine "Life". In fact, I have in my possession a copy of a 1948 news article from the Associated Press which discusses the site, as well as a small image which was taken by the NATO aircraft during the 1950s. I also possess two copies of photographs which were included in the 1960 Life Magazine article, as well as an assortment of other recent images that are associated with this same discovery.
According to the information I have read, it is said that the amazing structure, the size and shape of which closely match the description of Noah's Ark, as related in the pages of the Bible, was found preserved in glacial ice, and could only be seen from the air at certain times of the year. However, due to warming temperatures since the 1950s, the "boat" has since become completely exposed to the elements. It has also been said that the existence of this alleged boat has been known to the local population for at least hundreds of years, and that in times past, they supposedly took beams from the Ark to use as firewood, or to use as building materials.
It is believed that as a result of volcanic eruptions in the ancient past, the structure was eventually carried by lava flows down the slopes of the Ararat mountain range, to its current location, where it became impaled on a limestone outcropping. In 1978, an earthquake struck eastern Turkey. One result of that temblor was that the earth which had entombed the boat-like structure fell away, revealing what appear to be the ribs of a great ship. But, the earthquake also exposed the fragile remains to the elements. Naturally, the result has been that a great deal of deterioration has occurred to the structure.
Since the 1970s, in conjunction with the Turkish government, a research team headed by now-deceased Biblical investigator, Ron Wyatt, has been conducting a battery of scientific tests on the controversial remains, and these tests have yielded some very thought-provoking results. Rather than take a lot of time and space here to delve into those results, allow me to refer you instead to two websites which are dedicated to carrying on the work first begun by Ron Wyatt. Please note that the first site is headed by Mary Nell Wyatt, who is the widow of Ron Wyatt, while the second site is headed by one Jim Fry, who at one time worked for Mr. Wyatt. Please also be aware of the fact that unless the situation has changed in recent years, there are some serious problems and rivalries between said parties. I ask that you use a lot of spiritual discernment as you explore both of these sites:
Wyatt Archeological Research: https://www.ronwyatt.com
Anchor Stone International: https://www.anchorstone.com
Yet another claim places the remains of Noah's Ark at a site which is located within the borders of Iran. If we consider the fact that "Ararat" is actually the ancient Hebrew word for Armenia, which is an ancient country located in what is now the juncture of Turkey, Georgia, Azerbaijan and Iran, this final claim also appears to have some merit.
According to several apocryphal works, the place where Noah's Ark finally came to rest was known as Mount Lubar. I haven't been able to find this name mentioned anywhere in the pages of the Authorized King James Bible. However, it is found in a text known as the "Genesis Apocryphon", which includes part of Noah's personal diary, as we see here:
----- Begin Quote -----
and I began with - all my sons - to work the land and I planted a large vineyard at Mt. Lubar
and by the fourth year it produced wine for me;
And when the first festival came, on the first day of the first festival of the [seventh?] month . . . I opened
this vessel and I began to drink from it on the first day of the fifth year.
On this day I called my sons and grandsons and all our wives and their daughters and we gathered together and we went [to the place of the altar?]
. . . and I blessed the Lord of Heaven, the Most High God, the Great Holy One who delivered us from destruction
. . . they drank and . . .
I poured on . . . and the wine
----- End Quote -----
In the text of the Book of Jubilees, we find this very same story mentioned, as well as the fact that the Ark came to rest in a place called Mount Lubar, as we see here:
----- Begin Quote -----
"And the water prevailed on the face of the earth five months -one hundred and fifty days. And the ark went and rested on the top of Lubar, one of the mountains of Ararat. And (on the new moon) in the fourth month the fountains of the great deep were closed and the flood-gates of heaven were restrained; and on the new moon of the seventh month all the mouths of the abysses of the earth were opened, and the water began to descend into the deep below. And on the new moon of the tenth month the tops of the mountains were seen, and on the new moon of the first month the earth became visible. And the waters disappeared from above the earth in the fifth week in the seventh year thereof, and on the seventeenth day in the second month the earth was dry. And on the twenty-seventh thereof he opened the ark, and sent forth from it beasts, and cattle, and birds, and every moving thing."
Book of Jubilees 5:27-32
"And in the seventh week in the first year thereof, in this jubilee, Noah planted vines on the mountain on which the ark had rested, named Lubar, one of the Ararat Mountains . . ."
Book of Jubilees 7:1a
----- End Quote -----
Another online version of this same story, also taken from the Book of Jubilees, states as follows:
----- Begin Quote -----
Noah planted a vine at the mountain (whose name was Lubar, one of the mountains of Ararat) on which the ark had come to rest
It produced fruit in the fourth year. He guarded its fruit and picked it that year during the seventh month. He made wine from it, put it in a container, and kept it until the fifth year - until the first day at the beginning of the first month.
He joyfully celebrated the day of this festival. He made a burnt offering for the Lord - one young bull, one ram, seven sheep each a year old, and one kid - to make atonement through it for himself and for his sons. First he prepared the kid. He put some of its blood on the meat (that was on) the altar which he had made. He offered all the fat on the altar where he made the burnt offering along with the bull, the ram, and the sheep . . . Afterwards he sprinkled wine in the fire that had been on the altar beforehand . . . and offered a pleasant fragrance that was pleasing before the Lord his God.
He was very happy,
and he and his sons happily drank some of this wine
----- End Quote -----
The Book of Jubilees also informs us that upon Noah's death, he was buried on Mount Lubar in the land of Ararat, as we see here:
----- Begin Quote -----
"And Noah wrote down all things in a book as we instructed him concerning every kind of medicine. Thus the evil spirits were precluded from (hurting) the sons of Noah. And he gave all that he had written to Shem, his eldest son; for he loved him exceedingly above all his sons. And Noah slept with his fathers, and was buried on Mount Lubar in the land of Ararat. Nine hundred and fifty years he completed in his life, nineteen jubilees and two weeks and five years. And in his life on earth he excelled the children of men save Enoch because of the righteousness, wherein he was perfect. For Enoch's office was ordained for a testimony to the generations of the world, so that he should recount all the deeds of generation unto generation, till the day of judgment."
Book of Jubilees 10:13b-18a
----- End Quote -----
Finally, the Book of Jubilees explains that following the Flood, Noah's three sons -- Shem, Ham and Japheth -- built three cities on Mount Lubar, which they named after their wives. Following is a direct quote:
----- Begin Quote -----
"And he [Ham] built for himself a city and called its name after the name of his wife Ne'elatama'uk. And Japheth saw it, and became envious of his brother, and he too built for himself a city, and he called its name after the name of his wife 'Adataneses. And Shem dwelt with his father Noah, and he built a city close to his father on the mountain, and he too called its name after the name of his wife Sedeqetelebab. And behold these three cities are near Mount Lubar; Sedeqetelebab fronting the mountain on its east; and Na'eltama'uk on the south; 'Adatan'eses towards the west..."
Book of Jubilees 7:14b-18a
----- End Quote -----
The online version of the Jewish Encyclopedia also states that the name Lubar is mentioned in the ancient Jewish text known as the "Sefer Noah". Following is a short excerpt from said encyclopedia:
----- Begin Quote -----
The mountain on which the ark rested, and on which Noah afterward settled, is called in the Book of Jubilees (v. 38) and "Sefer Noaḥ" (l.c.) "Lubar," which Delitzsch supposes to be the Elbruz.
According to Jubilees (x. 21), Noah was buried on Mount Lubar, where he had settled after the Flood.
----- End Quote -----
You will notice that nineteenth century German theologian Franz Delitzsch suggests that ancient Lubar may possibly be a reference to Elbruz. But where is Elbruz? Wikipedia offers two possible locations. The first is a mountain range located in northern Iran near the border with Armenia, Afghanistan, and Pakistan. This closeness to Armenia seems to add weight to northern Iran being the possible location for the remains of the Ark. Another Wikipedia page discusses Mount Elbrus, which is a volcano located in the western Caucasus mountain range, in Russia, near the border of Georgia, in the northern Iranian plateau. Again we see that the same general area is called to our attention. In short, all three of these claims concerning the discovery of Noah's Ark center around the ancient nation of Ararat, today known as Armenia.
Having now provided you with an assortment of evidence, that is to say, Scriptural, historical and geological evidence, I trust that you, the reader, will be able to form an informed opinion concerning the Genesis Flood, the account of Noah's Ark, as well as the possible location of the remains of said structure. Whether you agree or disagree with my summation of the events is entirely up to you. My primary goal in writing this article is to present what I view as both a plausible and probable explanation of the events of the Genesis Flood, based upon a direct reading of the Scriptures, with the hope that it will inspire others to come to accept the veracity of God's Word.
If you have enjoyed reading this article, please consider sharing its URL with your online friends. If you have an account with Facebook, Twitter, Tumblr or with any other social network, I would also appreciate if you would take the time to click on the corresponding link that is found on this page. Thanks so much, and may God bless you abundantly!
For additional information, I encourage you to study the list of reading resources below which were also mentioned in this article, or which are related to this article, and which are likewise located on the Bill's Bible Basics web server:
Is Science Better Than the Bible?
Keeping Things in Proper Perspective: ET, Where Are You?
Nephilim: The Giants of Genesis
Genesis Flood: The Urantia Book Exposed Again!
Science and Technology: The Forbidden Knowledge?
The Dinosaur Dilemma and Modern Science
The Earth is Under Seven Thousand Years Old!