Admiral Richard E. Byrd and the Hollow Earth Theory
Part 1

Click or Tap Icons to Share! Thank you!
Authored By  :
Bill Kochman

Published On :
June 7, 1998

Last Updated :
April 17, 2020

My Personal Research Into Alien And UFO Phenomenon And Other Strange Fringe Ideas, Powerful Deception Of New Age Thought, A Belief In Underground Bases And Civilizations, Concepts Of Hollow Earth Theory, Sir Edmond Halley Introduces The Hollow Earth Theory, Views Of William Whiston, Isaac Newton's View, Edmond Halley And Aurora Borealis, Cotton Mather's Support Of Halley's Theory, John Cleves Symmes' Five-Spheres Model And Polar Openings, James McBride Publishes "Symmes's Theory Of Concentric Spheres", Leonhard Euler And Hollow Earth Theory, John Leslie's Experiment And Theories Regarding Hollow Earth

During the course of a two-year period which extended from about early 1995 to the Spring of 1997, I undertook a rather serious study of some of the more questionable beliefs and theories which have become increasingly prominent in Western society since the early part of the past century. That is, the 20th Century. Labeled as "fringe ideas" by the majority of level-headed people, this study included an in-depth look into such areas as the alien and UFO phenomenon, a number of government-related conspiracy theories, New Age thought and various similar topics.

In undertaking this study, like most people, I was partially motivated by my personal curiosity, as well as by a personal desire to expand my understanding of such matters, so that I could write about them in a more knowledgeable fashion. To emphasize the degree of dedication to which I performed this research, allow me to inform you that at one point, I had collected over one thousand and three hundred files related to these different areas of thought. These files included hundreds and hundreds of reports, personal testimonies, book extracts, commentaries, and some of the best UFO photographs available via the Internet. I spent a considerable amount of money and time to collect this information, and I read every single bit of it. This project took me literally months and months to complete.

What I quickly discovered during this time is that there is a worldwide body of people who have invested a great deal of time, energy, money and thought in their endeavors to sort fact from fiction. Please note that I am not just referring to the common imaginative kooks who obviously have something loose rattling around inside their brains.I am referring to serious research groups which are organized and staffed by people with very professional backgrounds. The purpose of these organizations is to gather and carefully analyze as much information as is humanly possible. Furthermore, some of these people work on very limited budgets.

Even as a Christian, I must candidly admit that a lot of the information I came across was very interesting; some of it even to the point of being quite fascinating. Despite my long background in the study of the Bible, and my attempts to maintain a healthy degree of skepticism, at times, I too found myself being drawn into the web of delusion which has overcome some of those people who are not so familiar with God's Word and the warnings that it offers. I imagine that it is only the Lord's mercy that I too was not completely deluded as some of these others have been, and continue to be to this very day, sad to say.

The reason why I am sharing this particular point with you is to emphasize the powerfully deceptive nature of some of this material. I expound more fully upon this topic in other of my alien/UFO and New Age related articles and series, as well as in several of my Bible prophecy related articles. I trust that you will take the time to read them as your time permits. You will find them listed at the end of this same series.

One particular topic which is well established within these rather esoteric schools of thought, is that of the idea of the existence of underground civilizations and secret bases which are alleged to be operated by either advanced alien civilizations, by the descendants of the Nazis of Germany, by American government shadow organizations, or by ancient human or semi-human civilizations which fled underground a very long time ago. In some cases, it is even claimed that these alleged underground bases and subterranean cities are joint human-alien endeavors. Yes, I know. It is a lot to swallow, but some people valiantly defend these beliefs.

In studying this phenomenon, one comes across such topics as Mount Shasta and Telos, Shamballah and Agharta, Death Valley and the Panamint Mountains, secretive undertakings beneath Dulce, New Mexico, Tibet, the Gobi Desert, Iron Mountain, Alice Springs, the Shaver Mysteries, the Atlanteans and the Lemurians, the Teros and the Deros, the Mothmen, the Greys, the Reptilians, the Nordics and other strange tales. Being as plenty of information -- as well as disinformation -- has already been written regarding these various subjects, I'll only be discussing a few of these later on in this series. What I wish to address at this current time is one central theme which encompasses all of these different topics. That is, the Hollow Earth Theory.

According to the proponents of this theory, contrary to what is stated in modern science books and believed by most folks today, the planet Earth is not a solid sphere with a molten or semi-molten iron core. Rather, Hollow Earth theorists are convinced that it is more akin to a hard-boiled egg in which most of the white part -- the albumen -- has been removed, leaving the yolk floating in the middle of the egg with an empty space existing between it -- that is, the yolk -- and the remaining albumen, which itself is protected by the hard outer shell.

To put this in more geological terms, the adherents of the Hollow Earth Theory claim that this "yolk" is in actuality a nuclear mini-Sun which provides both light and life to this purported inner world. In other words, the Earth is actually a hollow sphere with a mantle much less thick than what we have been taught, and without an outer or inner core. They propose that the inner surface of this mantle is actually the ground of the Inner Earth. It is claimed that the reason why the mini-Sun does not crash into the inner surface of the Earth during its revolution around the Sun, is due to the energy released by this mini-Sun acting as a repulsive force which keeps the mini-Sun equidistant from all surfaces of the Inner Earth.

According to Hollow Earth proponents, it is likewise claimed that the center of gravity isn't really in the center of the Earth, but rather in the middle of this much thinner mantle, which is situated just below the crust. In other words, just as a solid object will drop to the ground if one is standing on the outside of the Earth, the very same thing will happen if one is standing on the inside of the Earth as well. That is to say, the object will drop towards the ground, meaning towards the outer surface of the planet, and away from the inner mini-Sun. Were you able to grasp that? It is a bit mind-bending, isn't it?

In like manner, Hollow Earth theorists propose that just as we look up and see the sky around us with the Sun travelling its daily course due to the Earth's rotation, an inhabitant of the Inner Earth also sees a blue sky -- albeit a somewhat hazy one -- with the inner mini-Sun floating in the midst of it. It is also believed by the adherents of the Hollow Earth Theory that this inner world likewise possesses valleys and mountains, and streams, rivers, lakes and oceans.

Now, while many people will no doubt laugh and dismiss all of the previous information I have shared as the mad rantings of someone who has taken leave of their senses, let me point out that over the past three centuries, there have been a number of highly-respected scientists who have both considered, and in fact embraced, the possibility that Planet Earth could be hollow. Chief among these people is noted English astronomer, geophysicist, mathematician, meteorologist and physicist, Sir Edmond Halley. As you may know, Halley's Comet is named after this distinguished gentleman. Furthermore, many of the ideas which modern Hollow Earth theorists adhere to were formulated by Halley about three centuries ago. Halley's conclusions were motivated by his desire to find a scientific explanation for the obvious differences in location of Earth's geographic poles and magnetic poles. I will be discussing this issue in more detail later on in this series.

As you will see momentarily, Halley's basic premise was that the Earth's outer crust is five hundred miles thick. Below that is a hollow interior within which exist three smaller spheres, each one enclosed within the other. According to Halley, an atmosphere five hundred miles high separates each sphere from the next one. These three spheres are about the size of Venus, Mars and Mercury, with the innermost sphere being a solid core. Observing that "all the parts of the creation abound with animate beings", Halley speculated that the inner spheres might be inhabited by similar life forms as well. Regarding how such a world might be illuminated, Halley proposed that either the atmosphere might be luminous, or the inner side of each sphere might possibly emit light. He also said there might even be another source of light within the Earth's interior which he referred to as "peculiar luminaries below, of which we have no sort of idea." Here then are key excerpts from his speech entitled "An Account of the Cause of the Change of the Variation of the Magnetical Needle With an Hypothesis of the Structure of the Internal Parts of the Earth". Halley begins by mentioning his frustration with the problem of resolving the difference between the geographic and magnetic poles of the Earth:

----- Begin Quote -----

These difficulties had wholly made me despond, and I had long since given over an inquiry I had so little hopes of; when in accidental discourse, and least expecting it, I stumbled on the following Hypothesis; in delivering, whereof, if I shall seem to advance any thing that looks like Extravagant or Romantick, the Reader is desired to suspend his censure, till he have considered the farce and number of the many Arguments which concur to make good so new and so bold a Supposition.

So then the External Parts of the Globe may well be reckoned as the Shell, and the internal as a Nucleus or inner Globe included within ours, with a fluid medium between.

But to return to our Hypothesis, in order to explain the change of the Variations, we have adventured to make the Earth hollow and to place another Globe within it: and I doubt not but this will find Opposers enough. I know 'twill be objected, That there is no Instance in Nature of the like thing; That if there was such a middle Globe it would not keep its place in the Centre, but be apt to deviate there-from, and might possibly chock against the concave Shell, to the ruine or at least endammaging thereof; That the Water of the Sea would perpetually leak through, unless we suppose the Cavity full of Water; That were it possible yet it does not appear of what use such an inward Sphere can be of, being shut up in eternal darkness, and therefore unfit for the Production or Animals or Plants; with many more Objections, according to the Fate of all such new Propositions.

As to the leaking of the Water through this Shell, when once a passage shall be found for it to run through, I must confess it is an Objection seemingly of weight; but when we consider how tightly great Beds of Chalk or Clay, and much more Stone do hold water, and even Caves arch'd with Sand; no Man can doubt but the Wisdom of the Creator has provided for the Macrocosm by many more ways than I can either imagine or express, especially since we see the admirable and innumerable Contrivances wherewith each worthless Individual is furnisht both to defend itself and propagate its Species. What Curiosity in the Structure, what Accuracy in the Mixture and Composition of the parts ought not we to expect in the Fabrick of this Globe, made to be the lasting Habitation of so many various Species of Animals, in each of which there want not many Instances that manifest the boundless Power and Goodness of their Divine Author; and can we then think it a hard supposition that the Internal parts of this Bubble of Earth should be replete with such Saline and Vitriolick Particles as may contribute to petrifaction, and dispose the transuding Water to shoot and coagulate into Stone, so as continually to fortifie, and if need were to consolidate any breach or flaw in the Concave Surface of the Shell.

Now if the Moon be more solid than the Earth as 9 to 5, why may we not reasonably suppose the Moon, being a small Body and a Secondary Planet, to be solid Earth, Water, and Stone, and this Globe to consist of the same Materials, only four ninths thereof to be Cavity, within and between the Internal Spheres, which I would render not improbable.

To those that shall enquire of what use these included Globes can be, it must be allowed, that they can be of very little service to the Inhabitants of this outward World, nor can the Sun be serviceable to them, either with his Light or Heat. But since it is now taken for granted that the Earth is one of the Planets, and they all are with reason supposed Habitable, though we are not able to define by what sort of Animals; and since we fee all the parts of the Creation abound with Animate Beings, as the Air with Birds and Flies, the Water with the numerous varieties of Fish, and the very Earth with Reptiles of so many sorts; all whose ways of living would be to us incredible did not daily Experience teach us. Why then should we think it strange that the prodigious Mass of Matter, whereof this Globe does consist, should be capable of some other improvement than barely to serve to support its Surface? Why may not we rather suppose that the exceeding small quantity of solid Matter in respect of the fluid Ether, is so disposed by the Almighty Wisdom as to yield as great a Surface for the use of living Creatures as can consist with the conveniency and security of the whole. We our selves in Cities where we are pressed for room, commonly build many Stories one over the other, and thereby accommodate a much greater multitude of Inhabitants.

But still it will be said that without Light there can be no living, and therefore all this apparatus of our inward Globes must be useless: to this I answer that there are many ways of producing Light which we are wholly Ignorant of; the Medium it self may be always luminous after the manner of our Ignes fatui. The Concave Arches may in several places shine with such a substance as invests the Surface of the Sun; nor can we, without a boldness unbecoming a Philosopher, adventure to assert the impossibility of peculiar Luminaries below, of which we have no sort of Idea.

Lastly, To explain yet farther what I mean, I have adventured to adjoyn the following Scheme, wherein the Earth is represented by the outward Circle, and the three inward Circles are made nearly proportionable to the Magnitudes of the Planets Venus, Mars and Mercury, all which may be included within this Globe of Earth, and all the Arches more than sufficiently strong to bear their weight. The Concave of each Arch, which is shaded differently from the rest, I suppose to be made up of Magnetical Matter; and the whole to turn about the same common Axis p. p. only with this difference, that the Outer Sphere still moves somewhat faster than the Inner. Thus the Diameter of the Earth being about eight thousand English Miles, I allow five hundred Miles for the thickness of its Shell, and another space of five hundred Miles for a Medium between, capable of an immense Atmosphere for the use of the Globe of Venus: Venus again I give a Shell of the same thickness, and leave as great a space between her Concave and Mars; so likewise from Mars to Mercury, which latter Ball we will suppose solid, and about two thousand Miles Diameter. Thus I have shewed a possibility of a much more ample Creation, than has hitherto been imagined ; and if this seem strange to those that are unacquainted with the Magnetical System, it is hoped that all such will endeavour first to inform themselves of the Matter of Fact and then try if they can find out a more simple Hypothesis, at least a less absurd, even in their own Opinions. And whereas I have adventured to make these Subterraneous Orbs capable of being inhabited, 'twas done designedly for the sake of those who will be apt to ask cui bono, and with whom Arguments drawn from Final Causes prevail much. If this short Essay shall find a kind acceptance, I shall be encouraged to enquire farther, and to polish this rough Draft of a Notion till hitherto not so much as started in the World, and of which we could have no intimation from any other of the Phenomena of Nature.

----- End Quote -----

Halley presented his controversial theory in 1691 before The Royal Society; formally known as The Royal Society of London for Improving Natural Knowledge. While it did garner a lot of attention, and was likewise published the following year, and reprinted several more times during the 18th and early 19th centuries, over all, the response was less than enthusiastic. Nevertheless, the speech did gain some supporters, as you will now see.

For example, William Whiston, who was also a mathematician and a cleric who served as Sir Isaac Newton's assistant, and then succeeded Newton as Lucasian Professor of Mathematics at the University of Cambridge, embraced Halley's theory. Not only that, but Whiston likewise believed that the Sun, planets and even comets were hollow bodies as well, and that they were inhabited. On a side note, William Whiston is also well-known due to his translation of Flavius Josephus' "Antiquities of the Jews" into the English language.

In contrast to Whiston, Sir Isaac Newton -- who was president of the The Royal Society during the early part of the 18th century -- never incorporated Halley's Hollow Earth Theory in later editions of his much-respected "Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica" -- or "Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy" -- which is often referred to simply as the "Principia". This three-volume work is considered one of the most important works in the history of science. The work includes Newton's laws of motion, Newton's law of universal gravitation, and a derivation of Kepler's laws of planetary motion. Because The Royal Society was low on money at that time -- 1687 -- the cost of publishing "Principia" was born by Edmund Halley.

Despite strong opposition from the peers of his day, Halley never abandoned his theory. This is evidenced by the fact that during the very wonderful 1716 display of the Aurora Borealis, which was visible across Europe and North America, he at first posited in the 1716 edition of the "Philosophical Transactions" that the Northern Lights might result from "a certain luminous substance which . . . might exist for the purpose of lighting up the interior spaces of the Earth, and so of making them inhabitable." However, later, Halley more correctly determined that the Northern Lights are related to the Earth's own magnetism. This point is explained in more detail in Abraham Wolf's book called "A History of Science Technology and Philosophy in the 18th Century".

While Halley changed his mind regarding the scientific cause behind the Aurora Borealis, it is evident from a portrait of him at the age of eighty as Astronomer Royal, and painted in 1736, that he had not forsaken his ideas regarding the Earth being hollow. In the portrait, Halley can be seen holding a drawing of a model of his Hollow Earth Theory.

Another person who also supported Edmond Halley's theory was American Puritan minister, author and pamphleteer, Cotton Mather, who included the theory in a 1721 book entitled "The Christian Philosopher: A Collection of the Best Discoveries in Nature with Religion Improvements". Mather is also known for his experiments with hybridization, and his promotion of inoculation for disease prevention. But he is also notorious for his strong involvement in the Salem Witch Trials, along with his father, Increase Mather.

A lesser-known person who supported the Hollow Earth Theory was former US army officer, trader and lecturer, John Cleves Symmes Jr. Inspired by his contemplation of the rings of the planet Saturn, on April 10, 1818, Symmes published Circular No. 1 in which he announced his particular model of a Hollow Earth. What was new about his model is that it was the first one to make mention of an opening at each of the two poles. In the circular, Symmes stated as follows:

----- Begin Quote -----


ST. LOUIS, (Missouri Territory,)
North America, April 10, A.D. 1818


I declare the earth is hollow, and habitable within; containing a number of solid concentrick spheres, one within the other, and that it is open at the poles 12 or 16 degrees; I pledge my life in support of this truth, and am ready to explore the hollow, if the world will support and aid me in the undertaking.

John Cleves Symmes
Of Ohio, late Captain of Infantry.

N.B. -- I have ready for the press, a Treatise on the principles of matter, wherein I show proofs of the above positions, account for various phenomena, and disclose Doctor Darwin's Golden Secret.

My terms, are the patronage of this and the new worlds.

I dedicate to my Wife and her ten Children.

I select Doctor S.L. Mitchell, Sir H. Davy and Baron Alex. de Humboldt, as my protectors.

I ask one hundred brave companions, well equipped, to start from Siberia in the fall season, with Reindeer and slays, on the ice of the frozen sea; I engage we find warm and rich land, stocked with thrifty vegetables and animals if not men, on reaching one degree northward of latitude 82; we will return in the succeeding spring.


----- End Quote -----

According to the Wikipedia website, unlike Edmond Halley's model which imagined three interior spheres, in its original form, Symmes' Hollow Earth Theory involved five concentric spheres. Furthermore, in contrast to Halley's model in which the crust was five hundred miles thick, John Symmes proposed a thickness of one thousand miles. As I mentioned earlier, it is his inclusion of a large opening at each pole for which he is most known. According to Symmes, the Arctic hole is about four thousand miles wide, while the Antarctic hole is closer to six thousand miles wide. Another one of his views which has been widely adopted by modern Hollow Earth proponents, is that the degree of curvature of the rim of each polar opening is so gradual, that it's possible to actually enter the Inner Earth without even being aware of a transition occurring from the Outer Earth to the Inner Earth. I discuss this same point later on in this series. These proposed openings have since been names "Symmes Holes".

While Edmund Halley contemplated different possible sources of light to illuminate the inner spheres of the Hollow Earth, and while modern Hollow Earth theorists seem to be set in the belief of the existence of an interior mini-Sun, John Symmes suggested that the inner surfaces of the concentric spheres within his five-tier model are illuminated by sunlight which reflects off of the outer surface of the next sphere down. In this way, it creates a habitable environment for the dwellers therein. Furthermore, in his view, this very same concentric sphere model should be applied to all other planetary type bodies as well. Eventually, Symmes simplified his model so that instead of five concentric spheres, he promoted the idea of there just being one concentric sphere; meaning a Hollow Earth, as the theory is viewed today.

While John Cleves Symmes was more of a lecturer -- and thus had little time for or interest in writing a book regarding his model of the Hollow Earth -- one of his supporters and advocates by the name of James McBride did publish a book in 1826 called "Symmes's Theory of Concentric Spheres". There were a number of other publications during that time as well. One was an edited collection of Symmes' papers that his son, Americus, published in 1878 and called "Symmes's Theory of Concentric Spheres: Demonstrating That the Earth is Hollow, Habitable Within, and Widely Open About the Poles, Compiled by Americus Symmes, from the Writings of his Father, Capt. John Cleves Symmes".

Regarding the book which had been published by James McBride -- "Symmes's Theory of Concentric Spheres" -- one important development which resulted from it, which appears to be of somewhat dubious nature, is that according to McBride, noted Swiss mathematician and physicist, Leonhard Euler, also lent support to the Hollow Earth Theory. In the book -- which I have never personally seen or read -- McBride cites Euler as being an earlier proponent of a similar theory to that of Symmes. According to this unsubstantiated story, the Euler model lacked the concentric spheres proposed by Halley, and was similar to Symmes' final model, which features only one sphere. But that is not all. In addition, similar to modern models, the Euler model possessed a central mini-Sun that is about six hundred miles in diameter.

Is there any truth to the Euler story? As I said, suspicion has been cast upon McBride's 1826 citation. In fact, one of the primary detractors seems to be a Euler scholar by the name of C. Edward Sandifer. According to Sandifer, he found no indication of Leonhard Euler supporting the Hollow Earth Theory in any of his writings. I will leave it at that.

The final person of notability worth mentioning here is Sir John Leslie. A Scottish physicist and mathematician, Leslie is best remembered for his research into heat. However, he did engage in other scientific studies as well. For example, in his 1829 book "Elements of Natural Philosophy" -- a PDF copy of which I possess -- in the "Notes" section beginning on page 449, Leslie contends that if the Earth were entirely solid, it would be considerably more dense than it is known to be. He arrived at this conclusion based upon his views regarding the compressibility of matter under the action of gravity. As he mentions in his Notes, contrary to the opinion of his contemporaries, Leslie believed that fluids are indeed compressible.

Based on these assumptions, he posited that the Earth must be hollow, and that its crust occupies only a small percentage of its over all diameter. Furthermore, he concluded that the "great central concavity -- meaning the Earth's core -- is not that dark and dreary abyss which the fancy of Poets had pictured. On the contrary, this spacious internal vault -- again referring to the empty space within the Earth -- must contain the purest ethereal essence, Light in its most concentrated state, shining with intense refulgence and overpowering splendour." Following is a more complete text, verbatim, of what he said. Please note that I have removed all of his scientific formulae and more difficult commentary, so that it is easier for you to grasp what he is saying. Please also note that one page -- 452 -- is missing:

----- Begin Quote -----

"This capital experiment was first devised and performed on a small scale by Mr Canton in 1760. It established incontestably the compression of water, but seems to have been generally overlooked by succeeding popular writers, many of whom still continue to repeat the erroneous conclusion of the Academicians del Cimento, which represents that fluid as absolutely incompressible.

I have likewise had constructed, by our ingenious young optician Mr John Adie, a large and delicate instrument, suggested by the plan of Oerstedt, and capable of extensive application. It bears safely a pressure of 12 or 15 atmospheres, and not only measures easily the contraction of different fluids, but serves to indicate the various compressibility of solid substances. From a series of experiments which I have instituted, I may venture to anticipate the detection of some interesting and important facts in the economy of Nature.

The theory of the compression of bodies, carried to its full extent, might give rise to several bold but striking speculations regarding the internal constitution of our globe.

[Leslie's complicated formulae and arguments removed]

Hence it may be computed, that if the same law of condensation continued, Air would become as dense as Water at the depth of 33¾ miles; it would even acquire the density of Quicksilver at a farther depth of 163¼ miles.

The idea which I formerly threw out in the article Meteteorology, of the Supplement to the Encyclopedia Britannica, that the ocean may rest on a subaqueous bed of compressed air, is therefore not devoid of probability. Supposing the rate of contraction were to proceed more slowly than at first, still the required measure of condensation would be attained at a depth which forms a very small part of the radius of the globe.

But Water, under the weight of an enormous column, must likewise largely contract. At the depth of 93 miles, it would be compressed into half its former bulk; and at the depth of 362½ miles, it would acquire the ordinary density of quicksilver. Even Marble itself, subjected to its own pressure, would become twice as dense as before at the enormous depth of 287⅔ miles.

It is curious to remark, that, from its rapid compressibility. Air would sooner acquire the same density with Water, than this fluid would reach the condensation of Marble.

[Leslie's complicated formulae and arguments removed]

Such are the prodigious results deduced from the law of gravitation, even supposing the structure of the globe were uniform. But if we take into the estimate the augmented power from condensation, the numbers would become still more stupendous. It follows, therefore, that if the great body of our earth consisted of any such materials as we are acquainted with, its mean density would very far surpass the limits assigned by the most accurate investigations. The astronomical observation by Dr Maskelyne on the deflection of a pendulum, caused by the attraction of the sides of Mount Schiehallion and the nice experiments made with the Balance of Torsion by Mr Cayendish, on the mutual action

[page missing here]

Uranus, the most distant of the planets yet discovered. Only such surpassing powers of repulsion would appear at all adequate to balance the cumulative mass of compression, and restrain the condensation of our globe within moderate limits.

We are thus led, by a close train of induction, to the most important and striking conclusion. The great central concavity is not that dark and dreary abyss which the fancy of Poets had pictured. On the contrary, this spacious internal vault must contain the purest ethereal essence, Light in its most concentrated state, shining with intense refulgence and overpowering splendour."

----- End Quote -----

Before leaving behind our discussion regarding John Leslie, let me mention here that a rumor has circulated which claims that in addition to his conclusion regarding the possibility of the Earth being hollow, Leslie proposed the presence of two mini-Suns in the core of the Inner Earth. According to the rumor, he named these two suns Pluto and Prosperina. As I said, I have a PDF version of Leslie's book in my possession; and I can tell you from that from the beginning of the Notes at page 449, to their conclusion at page 461, there isn't any mention of two mini-Suns in his comments. Let me also mention that similar to his contemporaries, as well as Hollow Earth proponents of the previous century, his ideas were not well received. It has been suggested, however, that Jules Verne's famous 1864 tale "Journey to the Center of the Earth" was in part inspired by John Leslie's theories.

Please go to part two for the continuation of this series.

⇒ Go To The Next Part . . .

Click or Tap Icons to Share! Thank you!

BBB Tools And Services

Please avail yourself of other areas of the Bill's Bible Basics website. There are many treasures for you to discover.