Copyright 1994 - 2018 Bill's Bible Basics
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Published On :
September 25, 1997
Last Updated :
June 2, 2012
Book Of Enoch Is Rejected By Jews And By Certain Early Church Fathers, The Book Of Tobit Raphael And Angelic Visitations In The Bible, Sometimes We Entertain Angels Unawares, The Fallen Angels And The Nephilim In The Book Of Genesis, Apostle Peter Describes How Jesus Went To Preach To The Fallen Angels Who Are Imprisoned In The Bowels Of The Earth, Jude Mentions How Fallen Angels Abandoned Their Heavenly Habitation And Are Now Imprisoned Deep In The Earth, Enoch Zechariah And Jude Each Describe Christ's Glorious Return, Jesus And John Mention The Lord's Return, Angelic Visitations, Elisha And God's Chariots Of Fire, Azazel: The Scapegoat Of The High Priest, Martyrdom Of The Prophet Isaiah, Young Christians Should Concentrate On The Canon And Stay Away From Questionable Unbiblical Books, Acquire Strong Foundation In God's Word in Order To Recognize What Is False, My Views Regarding The Book of Enoch, Doubtful Nature Of Pseudepigraphical And Apocryphal Writings, Beware Of The Deceptions Of Satan Who Is The False Angel Of Light, Be Open To The Truth And Mine The Treasures Of God's Word, Concluding Remarks, Suggested Additional Reading Resources
Returning to our discussion concerning the Book of Enoch, if we consider the radical information that is contained in this ancient manuscript, it should not surprise us that this book was rejected by some of the early Church Fathers, as well as by some of the Jews even before that. As I mentioned in part one, the notion of Fallen Angels being capable of rebelling against God, possessing the power to materialize in physical bodies, and engaging in sexual intercourse with human women, which in itself resulted in the birth of great giants, was simply unacceptable to those tight-collared religionists of centuries ago. In their eyes, to embrace such beliefs was nothing short of heresy and blasphemy. To some of them, the Book of Enoch was a deceptive work of Satan which was worthy to be burned.
At the same time, it seems rather odd to me that Catholics have no problem accepting other Angelic Encounters. We find one clear example in the Book of Tobit, which is a part of the Apocrypha, which is included in the Catholic Bible, and which used to be included in the King James Version of the Bible as well. In this particular story, an Archangel by the name of Raphael takes on human form in order to assist in a wedding arrangement. Raphael also heals an old man's eyes. As I explain in articles such as "Sex, a Bowl of Soup, and the Nature of Angels" and "Great Cloud of Witnesses: God's Holy Ghosts?", even in the accepted canon, we discover a number of stories which involve Angelic Visitations. The Apostle Paul also informs us that sometimes we entertain Angels without even realizing it. Consider this verse:
"Be not forgetful to entertain strangers: for thereby some have entertained angels unawares."
Hebrews 13:2, KJV
Having said that, let us take a brief look at the account of the Watchers -- that is, the Fallen Angels -- as it is found in Genesis chapter six. Following is the entire story as it was written by Moses:
"And it came to pass, when men began to multiply on the face of the earth, and daughters were born unto them, That the sons of God saw the daughters of men that they were fair; and they took them wives of all which they chose. And the LORD said, My spirit shall not always strive with man, for that he also is flesh: yet his days shall be an hundred and twenty years. There were giants in the earth in those days; and also after that, when the sons of God came in unto the daughters of men, and they bare children to them, the same became mighty men which were of old, men of renown. And GOD saw that the wickedness of man was great in the earth, and that every imagination of the thoughts of his heart was only evil continually. And it repented the LORD that he had made man on the earth, and it grieved him at his heart. And the LORD said, I will destroy man whom I have created from the face of the earth; both man, and beast, and the creeping thing, and the fowls of the air; for it repenteth me that I have made them."
Genesis 6:1-7, KJV
As the previous verses demonstrate, this union of beautiful human women and rebellious Fallen Angels -- referred to here as "the sons of God" -- ultimately resulted in the birth of a race of wicked, violent giants which the Bible refers to as the Nephilim. This word is derived from the Hebrew word "nephiyl" -- or "nephil" -- which is translated as "giant". According to the Brown, Driver, Briggs, Gesenius Hebrew Aramaic English Lexicon, "nephiyl" is derived from earlier words which mean "to fall" or "the fallen ones". Thus, the Nephilim were in reality the children of the Fallen Angels.
As I stated at the beginning of this series, the previous account is a very abbreviated version of the story compared to the much more detailed information which can be found in the Book of Enoch. It seems to me that the fact that Moses even describes this event in Genesis is a clear indication that he was probably aware of -- and apparently accepted -- the writings of his forefather, Enoch. Furthermore, Moses must have viewed Enoch's writings as Divinely Inspired. Why else would he mention them? In fact, as I point out in the series entitled "Nephilim: The Giants of Genesis", and as is readily apparent in the previous verses, the story of the Fallen Angels and the Nephilim giants is very central to our understanding concerning why the Great Flood occurred about one hundred and twenty years later.
Moses is not the only person in the Bible who mentions the events which are described more fully in the Book of Enoch. Allow me to share with you some additional verses from the New Testament which deal with the fate of the Fallen Angels who rebelled against the Lord in the days of the Patriarch Noah. In his first Epistle, the Apostle Peter describes for us how following His Crucifixion, Jesus went to preach to the Fallen Angels who are imprisoned deep in the bowels of the Earth:
"For Christ also hath once suffered for sins, the just for the unjust, that he might bring us to God, being put to death in the flesh, but quickened by the Spirit: By which also he went and preached unto the spirits in prison; Which sometime were disobedient, when once the longsuffering of God waited in the days of Noah, while the ark was a preparing, wherein few, that is, eight souls were saved by water."
1 Peter 3:18-20, KJV
In his second Epistle, while writing about the fate of false prophets, Peter again makes mention of the imprisonment of the Watchers -- that is, the Fallen Angels -- which occurred during the days of the Patriarch Noah, as we see here:
"For if God spared not the angels that sinned, but cast them down to hell, and delivered them into chains of darkness, to be reserved unto judgment; And spared not the old world, but saved Noah the eighth person, a preacher of righteousness, bringing in the flood upon the world of the ungodly;"
2 Peter 2:4-5, KJV
As you can see, we are clearly told by Peter that the Fallen Angels sinned against God when they abandoned their Heavenly Abode, descended to the Earth, and proceeded to engage in sexual intercourse with human women. As a result, they were "cast . . . down to hell, and delivered . . . into chains of darkness, to be reserved unto judgment."
As with Moses, it seems apparent that Peter must have either heard of these events directly from Jesus Himself, or maybe he read about them in some other source. Considering that some of the early Church Fathers embraced the Book of Enoch as Divinely Inspired text, I suspect that the book was still in wide circulation during the First Century, and was thus read by the Apostles and the Disciples.
Regardless of the actual source of the information, the main point to consider is that Peter believed it, he talked about it, and wrote about it. In my view, this adds more support for the authenticity and Divine Inspiration of the Book of Enoch. Moses and Peter were not the only ones to reference events which are more amply discussed in the Book of Enoch. In his Epistle, Jude -- who was the brother of James, and probably the biological brother of Jesus as well -- briefly mentions the fate of the Fallen Angels. In fact, in his short letter, Jude makes several references to the Book of Enoch. Following is the first one regarding the Fallen Angels:
"And the angels which kept not their first estate, but left their own habitation, he hath reserved in everlasting chains under darkness unto the judgment of the great day."
Jude 1:6, KJV
As a side note, it may interest you to know that some of the early Church Fathers even considered the Epistle of Jude to not be canonical, precisely because it refers directly to the Book of Enoch, as in the previous verse.
Thus we see three clear examples where writers of the Bible refer to events concerning the Fallen Angels which are amply described in a work -- that is, the Book of Enoch -- which has been condemned and banned by most of modern Christianity. If such Christians accept the Divine Inspiration of the words of Moses, Peter and Jude who each reference the writings of Enoch, why do they turn around and reject the Book of Enoch? The previous examples are not the only places where the Book of Enoch appears to be referenced in the Holy Scriptures. In describing Christ's Return when He will stand upon the Mount of Olives just prior to the Battle of Armageddon, the Prophet Zechariah wrote the following. Please also take note of the numerical reference as well:
"And his feet shall stand in that day upon the mount of Olives, which is before Jerusalem on the east, and the mount of Olives shall cleave in the midst thereof toward the east and toward the west, and there shall be a very great valley; and half of the mountain shall remove toward the north, and half of it toward the south. And ye shall flee to the valley of the mountains; for the valley of the mountains shall reach unto Azal: yea, ye shall flee, like as ye fled from before the earthquake in the days of Uzziah king of Judah: and the LORD my God shall come, and all the saints with thee."
Zechariah 14:4-5, KJV
Notice in particular the very last part of verse five where Zechariah says ". . . and the LORD my God shall come, and all of the saints with thee." In the New Testament, Jude reminds us that Enoch also wrote of these very same events. Notice the similarities between the Scripture references for the Book of Zechariah, and the Epistle of Jude. Is this simply a coincidence?:
"And Enoch also, the seventh from Adam, prophesied of these, saying, Behold, the Lord cometh with ten thousands of his saints, To execute judgment upon all, and to convince all that are ungodly among them of all their ungodly deeds which they have ungodly committed, and of all their hard speeches which ungodly sinners have spoken against him."
Jude 1:14-15, KJV
Now let us take a look at exactly what Enoch said regarding this same earth-shaking event. As you will see, Jude quotes Enoch almost word-for-word. This demonstrates that Jude was very familiar with Enoch's writings, and that he must have esteemed them quite a bit. After all, one does not normally quote someone unless he has some respect for what the other person has said:
"And behold! He cometh with ten thousands of His holy ones To execute judgement upon all, And to destroy all the ungodly: And to convict all flesh Of all the works of their ungodliness which they have ungodly committed, And of all the hard things which ungodly sinners have spoken against Him."
Book of Enoch 1:9-10
In the eighth chapter of the Gospel of Mark, Jesus also made a similar statement concerning His Return when He said the following:
"Whosoever therefore shall be ashamed of me and of my words in this adulterous and sinful generation; of him also shall the Son of man be ashamed, when he cometh in the glory of his Father with the holy angels."
Mark 8:38, KJV
In the Book of Revelation, the Apostle John also provides us with a vivid description of Jesus returning with the Heavenly Host in order to engage in the Battle of Armageddon, as we see by the following verses:
"And I saw heaven opened, and behold a white horse; and he that sat upon him was called Faithful and True, and in righteousness he doth judge and make war. His eyes were as a flame of fire, and on his head were many crowns; and he had a name written, that no man knew, but he himself. And he was clothed with a vesture dipped in blood: and his name is called The Word of God. And the armies which were in heaven followed him upon white horses, clothed in fine linen, white and clean."
Revelation 19:11-14, KJV
As I mentioned earlier, in some of my other articles, I also discuss some of the Angelic Visitations which can be found in the pages of the Bible. In the following account concerning the Prophet Elisha, we again find mention of God's Heavenly Host which Zechariah, Jesus, Jude, John and Enoch all spoke about:
"And he answered, Fear not: for they that be with us are more than they that be with them. And Elisha prayed, and said, LORD, I pray thee, open his eyes, that he may see. And the LORD opened the eyes of the young man; and he saw: and, behold, the mountain was full of horses and chariots of fire round about Elisha. And when they came down to him, Elisha prayed unto the LORD, and said, Smite this people, I pray thee, with blindness. And he smote them with blindness according to the word of Elisha."
2 Kings 6:16-18, KJV
This incident is yet another clear example of something that is amply discussed in the Bible -- that is, the Heavenly Host -- as well as in the Book of Enoch. Despite this fact, some modern-day Christians readily accept that the writers of the Bible were Divinely Inspired as they wrote their books; yet at the same time, they adamantly reject the possibility that the Book of Enoch may also be Divinely Inspired.
Another veiled reference to the Book Of Enoch can be found in the Book of Leviticus where the duties and responsibilities of Aaron the High Priest are discussed. Now, unless you are Jewish and can read Hebrew, you may never even realize that this particular connection to the Book of Enoch exists. The reason why this is so is because the English equivalent is used instead of the original Hebrew name; which is found in certain versions of the Bible other than the KJV. In the sixth chapter of Leviticus we find the following verses:
"And Aaron shall cast lots upon the two goats; one lot for the LORD, and the other lot for the scapegoat . . . But the goat, on which the lot fell to be the scapegoat, shall be presented alive before the LORD, to make an atonement with him, and to let him go for a scapegoat into the wilderness . . . And he that let go the goat for the scapegoat shall wash his clothes, and bathe his flesh in water, and afterward come into the camp."
Leviticus 16:8, 10, 26, KJV
As I explain in the article entitled "Judgment of Azazel: Scapegoat of the High Priest", this set of verses concerning Aaron sacrificing a bullock as a sin offering, followed by choosing between the two goats, has some very deep spiritual implications. What is important for our current discussion is the fact that in the original Hebrew language, the word that is translated as "scapegoat" in the above verse is "azazel". Many people have never heard of this word, although it has been used in a number of Hollywood movies in recent decades.
However, if you read the Book of Enoch, you will discover that Azazel happens to be the name of one of the leaders of the two hundred Fallen Angels who rebelled against God, left their Heavenly Abode, descended to the Earth on Mount Hermon in the present-day Golan Heights, and then engaged in sexual intercourse with human women, thus resulting in the birth of the giant Nephilim. These rebels from Heaven taught humanity many evil works as well, according to the Book of Enoch, as we can determine by the following verses:
"And Azazel taught men to make swords, and knives, and shields, and breastplates, and made known to them the metals of the earth and the art of working them, and bracelets, and ornaments, and the use of antimony, and the beautifying of the eyelids, and all kinds of costly stones, and all colouring tinctures. And there arose much godlessness, and they committed fornication, and they were led astray, and became corrupt in all their ways."
Book of Enoch 8:1-3a
"Thou seest what Azazel hath done, who hath taught all unrighteousness on earth and revealed the eternal secrets which were (preserved) in heaven, which men were striving to learn:"
Book of Enoch 9:6b-7a
"And again the Lord said to Raphael: 'Bind Azazel hand and foot, and cast him into the darkness: and make an opening in the desert, which is in Dudael, and cast him therein. And place upon him rough and jagged rocks, and cover him with darkness, and let him abide there for ever, and cover his face that he may not see light. And on the day of the great judgement he shall be cast into the fire. And heal the earth which the angels have corrupted, and proclaim the healing of the earth, that they may heal the plague, and that all the children of men may not perish through all the secret things that the Watchers have disclosed and have taught their sons. And the whole earth has been corrupted through the works that were taught by Azazel: to him ascribe all sin.'"
Book of Enoch 10:4-8
"And Enoch went and said: 'Azazel, thou shalt have no peace: a severe sentence has gone forth against thee to put thee in bonds: And thou shalt not have toleration nor request granted to thee, because of the unrighteousness which thou hast taught, and because of all the works of godlessness and unrighteousness and sin which thou hast shown to men.'"
Book of Enoch 13:1-3
"And I asked the angel of peace who went with me, saying: 'For whom are these chains being prepared ?' And he said unto me: 'These are being prepared for the hosts of Azazel, so that they may take them and cast them into the abyss of complete condemnation, and they shall cover their jaws with rough stones as the Lord of Spirits commanded.'"
Book of Enoch 54:4-5
"Ye mighty kings who dwell on the earth, ye shall have to behold Mine Elect One, how he sits on the throne of glory and judges Azazel, and all his associates, and all his hosts in the name of the Lord of Spirits."
Book of Enoch 55:4
"And after this judgement they shall terrify and make them to tremble because they have shown this to those who dwell on the earth. And behold the names of those angels [and these are their names: the first of them is Samjaza, the second Artaqifa, and the third Armen, the fourth Kokabel, the fifth Turael, the sixth Rumjal, the seventh Danjal, the eighth Neqael, the ninth Baraqel, the tenth Azazel, the eleventh Armaros, the twelfth Batarjal, the thirteenth Busasejal, the fourteenth Hananel, the fifteenth Turel, and the sixteenth Simapesiel, the seventeenth Jetrel, the eighteenth Tumael, the nineteenth Turel, the twentieth Rumael, the twenty-first Azazel. And these are the chiefs of their angels and their names, and their chief ones over hundreds and over fifties and over tens]."
Book of Enoch 69:1-3
So while it isn't apparent in the KJV Bible, as the previous verses reveal, Azazel is actually one of the leaders of the Watchers -- or Grigori as they are also known -- who at this current time are bound in chains in the dark interior of the Earth, waiting for their day of judgment. If you would like to learn more about this topic, please consider reading the series entitled "Hell, the Lake of Fire and Universalism".
The point I wish to make is that were it not for the Book of Enoch, this mention of Azazel in the King James Version of the Bible would more than likely be overlooked by a lot of people. What I also find interesting is the fact that to my knowledge, these are the only verses in the entire King James Bible where there is even a veiled reference to the sins of Azazel and his companions.
Another possible reference to a little-known Apocryphal Work can be found in the eleventh chapter of the Apostle Paul's Epistle to the Hebrews. In this chapter, Paul expounds on the importance of having faith, and mentions many of the heroes of faith of the Old Testament. In one particular verse, while discussing how some of these heroes of faith were martyred, Paul mentions the fact that some of the Old Testament Saints were sawn asunder. In case you don't know what that actually signifies, it means that the Prophets of God were literally cut in half with a two-man saw while they were still alive, as we see here:
"They were stoned, they were sawn asunder, were tempted, were slain with the sword: they wandered about in sheepskins and goatskins; being destitute, afflicted, tormented;"
Hebrews 11:37, KJV
Exactly how does Paul know about this? Did someone tell him this? Did he read about it somewhere? Were people still being cut in half even in Paul's day? One possibility is that Paul may have read "The Martyrdom of the Prophet Isaiah by King Manasseh". This account very graphically describes how after many years of faithfully prophesying the Word of the Lord, the Prophet Isaiah was strapped in and literally cut in half. According to the manuscript, Isaiah kept praising the Lord the entire time. Is there really any truth to this story? I honestly do not know; but at the very least, it provides a basis for what the Apostle Paul wrote regarding the heroes of faith being "sawn asunder" in the Epistle to the Hebrews.
Despite the fact that Paul may possibly be referring to "The Martyrdom of the Prophet Isaiah by King Manasseh", some of the early Church Fathers apparently made the decision that we had no business reading about it. Thus, just like the Book of Enoch, it was not included in the Biblical canon, and we can only wonder how many other ancient manuscripts did not make the grade, when perhaps they should have been included in the canon.
Before concluding this series, allow me to offer a word of advice for my readers. While I personally will often conduct research utilizing unbiblical materials in order to fill in informational gaps in my articles, including Apocryphal and Pseudepigraphical works, I do not recommend this practice for Christians who are still very young in the faith. As the Apostle Paul admonished his readers in his Epistle to the Hebrews:
"For when for the time ye ought to be teachers, ye have need that one teach you again which be the first principles of the oracles of God; and are become such as have need of milk, and not of strong meat. For every one that useth milk is unskilful in the word of righteousness: for he is a babe. But strong meat belongeth to them that are of full age, even those who by reason of use have their senses exercised to discern both good and evil."
Hebrews 5:12-14, KJV
Until you have acquired a solid foundation in the recognized Word of God -- that is, the canon -- it is probably best for you to stay away from these other questionable writings. The reason why I suggest this to you is quite simple. Until you have been a Christian for a while, and have reached a level of spiritual maturity where you can differentiate between what is truly inspired by God's Spirit, and what is not, it is dangerous to become involved with unbiblical manuscripts and books. As I explain in articles such as "2012: New Age Deception and Psychobabble", "Lying Wonders of the Endtime" and "Age of Deception, Age of Delusion", at this current time there is a great deal of deception in the world, and it is only going to get worse as we draw closer to the end of man's reign upon the Earth. Even books which appear to be based on the Bible may be full of deception.
The best way to differentiate between what is true and what is false insofar as spiritual truth is concerned, is simply by studying the Bible until you know it inside and out. This is precisely what bank tellers must do. In other words, they learn to recognize all of the unique attributes of the real currency of their land, so that whenever a false bill comes along, they will immediately be able to identify it as such. In the same manner, Christians must diligently study the Word of God in order to recognize the true Spirit of God, so that we are not deceived by false teachings, or by books which falsely claim to be the inspired Word of God. As the Apostle Paul wrote in his second Epistle to Timothy:
"Study to shew thyself approved unto God, a workman that needeth not to be ashamed, rightly dividing the word of truth."
2 Timothy 2:15, KJV
In my case, I have been studying God's Word for over forty years now. Because of this fact, I feel that I have reached a point in my spiritual growth where I can safely explore other books which I might have previously avoided. Such is the case with the Book Of Enoch. As I stated at the beginning of this series, it is a powerful book. I was definitely moved by its contents; although I must admit that some of it is even too profound for me to understand. Due to the support that I have found for it in the King James Version of the Bible, I do not outright reject it, or consider it heretical in nature. Yet at the same time, neither have I reached a point where I fully embrace it.
Concerning the level of accuracy of the Book of Enoch, I honestly do not know. Some of it is difficult to believe, even for me. What I can say is that it seems that with time, all works tend to become a bit exaggerated or distorted so that some truths are lost. This is precisely how some myths are born. As far as its Divine Inspiration is concerned, if I were to compare the Book of Enoch with the books of the Maccabees, I would easily choose the Book of Enoch over the books of the Maccabees. If you would like to read the actual Book of Enoch, please click on the link below:
In conclusion, there are many other pseudepigraphical and apocryphal writings in addition to the Book of Enoch. Due to my personal time constraints, I have not read them all yet. However, of the ones which I have read, I will readily admit that I have some serious reservations regarding quite a few of them, and they do not seem to be Divinely Inspired to me. It is important that we remember that Satan is a liar and a deceiver, and he will use all manner of deception in order to trick us into accepting his lies, including manuscripts which were not inspired by the Spirit of God; so please be aware of this fact, and remember verses such as these:
". . . He was a murderer from the beginning, and abode not in the truth, because there is no truth in him. When he speaketh a lie, he speaketh of his own: for he is a liar, and the father of it."
John 8:44b, KJV
"Lest Satan should get an advantage of us: for we are not ignorant of his devices."
2 Corinthians 2:11, KJV
"And no marvel; for Satan himself is transformed into an angel of light."
2 Corinthians 11:14, KJV
At the same time, let us also remember that there are many precious jewels, wonderful truths and hidden treasures to be found in God's Word. However, if we are too close-minded and set in our ways, we may never see them, or be able to mine them out. As you may recall, Jesus compared the Kingdom of Heaven to a treasure on a number of occasions, as we can see by verses such as the following:
"Again, the kingdom of heaven is like unto treasure hid in a field; the which when a man hath found, he hideth, and for joy thereof goeth and selleth all that he hath, and buyeth that field."
Matthew 13:44, KJV
"Then said he unto them, Therefore every scribe which is instructed unto the kingdom of heaven is like unto a man that is an householder, which bringeth forth out of his treasure things new and old."
Matthew 13:52, KJV
By the Grace of God, we can all learn new things everyday if we are willing to launch out into the depths of God's Word. Sometimes the things which the Lord chooses to reveal to us may contradict what we have previously believed. When this happens, we must be willing to admit that our understanding was clouded, and simply accept the new truth which He has revealed to us. Of course, at the same time, it is also my personal belief that the Lord will never give us anything which contradicts what is already contained in His Word.
Just remember that we cannot be afraid to change; otherwise we may lose all opportunities for spiritual growth. This is precisely the mistake that the Jewish Elders made when they chose to reject Jesus. Because they were satisfied with what they already had, and because they rejected the Light of the World, Jesus told them that they were blind leaders of the blind who were walking in darkness. We must ask ourselves: How much Light and Truth are we willing to accept?
With these thoughts I will bring this series to a close. I trust that it has been a blessing and an inspiration in your life. If you have enjoyed reading this series, I ask that you please consider sharing its URL link with your online friends. If you have an account with Facebook, Twitter, Google+, Tumblr, etc, I would also very much appreciate if you would take the time to click on the corresponding link that is found on this page. Thanks so much, and may God bless you abundantly! For additional information, you may want to refer to the list of reading resources below which were also mentioned in this series, and which are likewise located on this very same Bill's Bible Basics website:
2012: New Age Deception and Psychobabble
A Biblical Cafeteria, Or the Whole Course?
Age of Deception, Age of Delusion
Great Cloud Of Witnesses: God's Holy Ghosts?
Hell, the Lake of Fire and Universalism
Judgment of Azazel: Scapegoat of the High Priest
Lying Wonders of the Endtime
Nephilim: The Giants of Genesis
One From Beyond: Hebrew of Hebrews
Pontifex Maximus: Pagan High Priest to Roman Catholic Pope
Revelation's Babylon the Great
Sex, a Bowl of Soup, and the Nature of Angels
The Children of God and Politics
The Fruits of Disobedience