The Kings of the North and the South

Click or Tap Icons to Share! Thank you!
Authored By  :
Bill Kochman

Published On :
January 30, 1998

Last Updated :
January 3, 2009

NOTE: This article or series has not been updated recently. As such, it may possibly contain some outdated information, and/or ideas and beliefs which I no longer embrace, or which have changed to some degree.

Rome, Babylon The Great Whore, The False Prophet, Roman
Catholicism, John Paul II, Nostradamus, Judaism, Jeremiah In
Prison, King Nebuchadnezzar And The Babylonian Empire, The
Medo-Persian Kings, Alexander The Great, The Roman Empire,
Constantine, The Ten Toes, The Heavenly City, The Seleucid
Kings, Beersheba, The Kings Of The North And The South

Within eschatological circles, there exists a wide range of
interpretations concerning the possible identity of the
Endtime political leader known as the Beast, the false
religious system which embraces the politics of the Beast
known as Babylon the Great Whore, and the deceptive
spiritual leader known as the False Prophet who heads that
false religion. One school of thought suggests that the
government of the Beast will arise from the city of Rome.
Similar to this view is one which states that the false
religion of the Endtime is represented by Roman Catholicism.
This then leads to the obvious assumption that the pope must
be the False Prophet. According to the Book of Revelation,
the religious Whore will ride upon the political Beast
committing spiritual fornication with the world:

"And there came one of the seven angels which had the seven
vials, and talked with me, saying unto me, Come hither; I
will shew unto thee the judgment of the great whore that
sitteth upon many waters: With whom the kings of the earth
have committed fornication, and the inhabitants of the earth
have been made drunk with the wine of her fornication. So he
carried me away in the spirit into the wilderness: and I saw
a woman sit upon a scarlet coloured beast, full of names of
blasphemy, having seven heads and ten horns. And the woman
was arrayed in purple and scarlet colour, and decked with
gold and precious stones and pearls, having a golden cup in
her hand full of abominations and filthiness of her
fornication: And upon her forehead was a name written,
(Revelation 17:1-5)

Thus we see God's once-faithful Bride prostituting herself
with the merchants and political leaders of the world. This
view of Roman Catholicism is embraced by those who strongly
oppose the worldwide religious, political and financial
power of Vatican City which indeed appears to rely upon a
marriage of convenience between religion and politics. These
critics include, but are not limited to, certain Protestant
and Baptist denominations, organizations and individuals.
The fact that John Paul II has not only acquired quite a
reputation for his views on human rights and the plight of
the poor, but also because he has been extremely effective
at contributing to the downfall of some oppressive regimes,
has served to fuel the animosity which some feel towards the
tremendous power which he and the Roman Catholic church
yield. Having just concluded his historic 1998 visit to
Cuba, it would be wise to keep an eye on that island nation
to see if it follows in the footsteps of other totalitarian
governments which have met their demise following a visit by
the outspoken pope.

Religionists are not the only ones who hold to these views
concerning Roman Catholicism. They are also embraced by
those who accept the validity of the quatrains of the
sixteenth century French physician and astrologer,
Nostradamus. According to certain interpretations of the
quatrains, it is said that there will only be two more popes
to sit in the Vatican chair following John Paul II, who is
already seventy-seven years of age and suffering from
Parkinson's Disease. While the pope may have escaped an
assassins's bullet, in God's time, he too will go the way of
all flesh. Following his successor, the adherents of this
second belief group believe that the final pope will be the
False Prophet who will compromise with the political Beast.
While I find these interpretations interesting, I share them
with a note of caution. These same followers of Nostradamus
also claimed that the passage of Comet Hale-Bopp in 1997
signalled that the current pope would be assassinated within
a certain time frame. That time frame has already passed and
the pope is still alive. I encourage you to read my article
entitled 'Nostradamus: Prophet Of God Or Messenger Of
Satan?' for my additional thoughts concerning Nostradamus.

In the thirteenth chapter of his Revelation, the Apostle
John describes the political Beast of the Endtime in the
following manner:

"And I stood upon the sand of the sea, and saw a beast rise
up out of the sea, having seven heads and ten horns, and
upon his horns ten crowns, and upon his heads the name of
blasphemy. And the beast which I saw was like unto a
leopard, and his feet were as the feet of a bear, and his
mouth as the mouth of a lion: and the dragon gave him his
power, and his seat, and great authority. And I saw one of
his heads as it were wounded to death; and his deadly wound
was healed: and all the world wondered after the beast."
(Revelation 13:1-3)

In the very same chapter, the religious False Prophet who
works in conjunction with the political Beast, is symbolized
by a second beast rising up out of the Earth. In a sense,
the False Prophet will act as the Beast's propaganda agent:

"And I beheld another beast coming up out of the earth; and
he had two horns like a lamb, and he spake as a dragon."
(Revelation 13:11)

In the previous chapter of Revelation, we discover that the
'dragon' which gives this great power to the Beast and the
False Prophet is none other than Satan himself:

"And the great dragon was cast out, that old serpent, called
the Devil, and Satan, which deceiveth the whole world: he
was cast out into the earth, and his angels were cast out
with him." (Revelation 12:9)

In my article 'Revelation's Babylon The Great Whore', I
propose that Jerusalem might be the mysterious Babylon the
Great Whore which is destroyed by the Beast and the ten
nations in league with him, that is, the Ten Horns. To
reiterate what I said in that article, my strongest argument
for this position is based upon the following verses which
describe the sins of Jerusalem and Babylon:

"Woe unto you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! because ye
build the tombs of the prophets, and garnish the sepulchres
of the righteous, And say, If we had been in the days of our
fathers, we would not have been partakers with them in the
blood of the prophets. Wherefore ye be witnesses unto
yourselves, that ye are the children of them which killed
the prophets. Fill ye up then the measure of your fathers.
Ye serpents, ye generation of vipers, how can ye escape the
damnation of hell? Wherefore, behold, I send unto you
prophets, and wise men, and scribes: and some of them ye
shall kill and crucify; and some of them shall ye scourge in
your synagogues, and persecute them from city to city: That
upon you may come all the righteous blood shed upon the
earth, from the blood of righteous Abel unto the blood of
Zacharias son of Barachias, whom ye slew between the temple
and the altar. Verily I say unto you, All these things shall
come upon this generation. O Jerusalem, Jerusalem, thou that
killest the prophets, and stonest them which are sent unto
thee, how often would I have gathered thy children together,
even as a hen gathereth her chickens under her wings, and ye
would not! Behold, your house is left unto you desolate."
(Matthew 23:29-38)

In the above verses, Jesus is clearly stating that the blood
of the Prophets is found in the streets of Jerusalem. This
satanic attack against God's children culminated in the
Death of our Saviour. However, the blood on the hands of the
leadership of Jerusalem did not end there. The Book of Acts
clearly testifies that the Sandhedrin continued to persecute
and kill the followers of the young new Church, as in the
case of the martyr Stephen in Acts chapter seven. In the
Book of Revelation, the Apostle John describes the guilt of
mysterious Babylon the Great Whore in the very same manner:

"And in her was found the blood of prophets, and of saints,
and of all that were slain upon the earth."
(Revelation 18:24)

The Prophets that the above verses are referring to are the
Jewish Prophets of the Old Testament who were mocked,
persecuted, imprisoned, tortured and slain for daring to
preach the Word of the Lord against the corrupt spiritual
and political leadership of their day. It was at their
Jewish descendants that Jesus pointed an accusatory finger
when He called them 'the children of them which killed the
prophets'. Therefore, considering Jesus' own words, which
were later repeated by John, it makes a lot more sense to me
that Jerusalem is the mysterious Babylon the Great Whore,
and NOT Rome as is supposed by some. We know that Rome was
indeed responsible for the martyrdom of literally thousands
of the Lord's children during the First Century. To this
day, beneath the streets of modern Rome can be found rows
upon rows of the sepulchres of the Saints. While this is
indeed compelling evidence, the fact still remains that both
Jesus and John were referring to the Old Testament Prophets
who were murdered by their Jewish brethren. At the time
these Prophets were slain, Rome had not even become a
dominant power yet.

Even if we were to accept that Rome is the Beast's seat of
authority, it doesn't seem likely that he would destroy his
own powerbase. At this point some may argue that this is
precisely what Nero did when he burned Rome in the latter
half of the First Century. Thus, they claim that these
prophecies have already been fulfilled. However, I submit
that it is an error to interpret the burning of Babylon the
Great as the destruction of Rome several decades before John
wrote the Book of Revelation. John was clearly writing of a
future event at the end of the world, and NOT of something
which had already occurred as the verb tense in the
following verses makes clear:

"And the ten horns which thou sawest are ten kings, which
have received no kingdom as yet; but receive power as kings
one hour with the beast...And the ten horns which thou
sawest upon the beast, these shall hate the whore, and shall
make her desolate and naked, and shall eat her flesh, and
burn her with fire. For God hath put in their hearts to
fulfil his will, and to agree, and give their kingdom unto
the beast, until the words of God shall be fulfilled. And
the woman which thou sawest is that great city, which
reigneth over the kings of the earth."
(Revelation 17:12, 16-18)

In the above verses, John is writing of the final Beast, the
eighth king, the leader and empire which, together with ten
other Endtime nations, will destroy Babylon the Great Whore
just prior to Christ's Second Coming. I discuss this more
fully in part two of this article, as well as in my six-part
series 'The Seven Heads' and other Endtime articles. While
some eschatologists are quick to recognize the blatant sins
and shortcomings of the Roman Catholic church, and thus
point to her as being Babylon the Great of the Endtime, they
fail to recognize that Judaism is even more of a false
religion because, while the Jews have rejected the Saviour,
they still have the audacity to claim that they are the
chosen people of God. This, in my view, is an even greater
deception than Roman Catholicism; and many people, including
some Christians, have fallen for it. In a sense, Judaism is
a half-religion because it has accepted the promises for a
Messiah in the Old Testament, while fully rejecting the
fulfillment of those same promises in the New Testament.
Because of this and other factors I have already explained,
I maintain that Jerusalem still best fits the description of
Babylon the Great. Time will certainly reveal the truth.

For those who suggest that ancient Babylon may have been the
Great Whore referred to by John, allow me to point out that
this also is inaccurate simply due to the fact that the
Babylonians did not kill the Prophets of old. In fact, as is
verified by the example of Jeremiah, the Prophets were
treated with honor and favor by the Babylonians due to the
fact that not only did they not resist the occupation, but
they also encouraged the Jewish leadership and people to
humbly surrender to the overwhelming forces of King
Nebuchadnezzar, and to accept it as a chastisement from the
Lord. It was because of this unpopular message that Jeremiah
was thrown in prison on more than one occasion by his own
Jewish brethren after being accused of being a traitor and a

"Wherefore the princes were wroth with Jeremiah, and smote
him, and put him in prison in the house of Jonathan the
scribe: for they had made that the prison."
(Jeremiah 37:15)

"Then Zedekiah the king commanded that they should commit
Jeremiah into the court of the prison, and that they should
give him daily a piece of bread out of the bakers' street,
until all the bread in the city were spent. Thus Jeremiah
remained in the court of the prison." (Jeremiah 37:21)

"Then took they Jeremiah, and cast him into the dungeon of
Malchiah the son of Hammelech, that was in the court of the
prison: and they let down Jeremiah with cords. And in the
dungeon there was no water, but mire: so Jeremiah sunk in
the mire." (Jeremiah 38:6)

As can be seen by the above verses, even though King
Zedekiah freed Jeremiah after his first imprisonment, in the
very next chapter, he allowed the Prophet's enemies to cast
him into prison a second time. The reason he did this is
because he feared his own people, just like many political
leaders today who manplease the public in order to stay in

"Then Zedekiah the king said, Behold, he is in your hand:
for the king is not he that can do any thing against you."
(Jeremiah 38:5)

"And Zedekiah the king said unto Jeremiah, I am afraid of
the Jews that are fallen to the Chaldeans, lest they deliver
me into their hand, and they mock me." (Jeremiah 38:19)

Thanks to Jeremiah's friend Ebed-melech, Zedekiah again
consented to allowing the Prophet to be pulled out of the
mirey dungeon; however, he still had to remain in the court
of the prison:

"So they drew up Jeremiah with cords, and took him up out of
the dungeon: and Jeremiah remained in the court of the
prison...So Jeremiah abode in the court of the prison until
the day that Jerusalem was taken: and he was there when
Jerusalem was taken." (Jeremiah 38:13, 28)

Once the siege against Jerusalem had been completed,
Jeremiah was completely freed, not by his Jewish brethren,
but by the Babylonians themselves under direct orders of
King Nebuchadnezzar. Not only was Jeremiah freed, but he was
given a financial reward and permitted to go wherever he

"Now Nebuchadrezzar king of Babylon gave charge concerning
Jeremiah to Nebuzaradan the captain of the guard, saying,
Take him, and look well to him, and do him no harm; but do
unto him even as he shall say unto thee. So Nebuzaradan the
captain of the guard sent, and Nebushasban, Rabsaris, and
Nergalsharezer, Rabmag, and all the king of Babylon's
princes; Even they sent, and took Jeremiah out of the court
of the prison, and committed him unto Gedaliah the son of
Ahikam the son of Shaphan, that he should carry him home: so
he dwelt among the people." (Jeremiah 39:11-14)

"And now, behold, I loose thee this day from the chains
which were upon thine hand. If it seem good unto thee to
come with me into Babylon, come; and I will look well unto
thee: but if it seem ill unto thee to come with me into
Babylon, forbear: behold, all the land is before thee:
whither it seemeth good and convenient for thee to go,
thither go. Now while he was not yet gone back, he said, Go
back also to Gedaliah the son of Ahikam the son of Shaphan,
whom the king of Babylon hath made governor over the cities
of Judah, and dwell with him among the people: or go
wheresoever it seemeth convenient unto thee to go. So the
captain of the guard gave him victuals and a reward, and let
him go." (Jeremiah 40:4-5)

Returning to the topic of the true identity of the Beast, as
can be seen, trying to properly interpret Endtime prophecy
is no easy task. Even though we have the same Scriptures
available to us, and a wide variety of historical sources
to refer to, eschatologists have still found it difficult to
arrive at a common interpretation of the ancient prophecies.
The best thing that we can all do is to remain open to the
Lord's Spirit. As the Lord reveals more to us, we should be
willing to update our writings to reflect those new points
of view. The Lord might reveal new things to us through
additional study of the Scriptures, through comparing notes
with other Christians, or perhaps through seeing actual
fulfillments in the world press.

In trying to understand Endtime prophecy and what is yet to
be fulfilled, it is important to know what has already been
fulfilled in times past. By identifying these early markers
of where we have already been, we can uncover the early
roots of the Beast, and thus arrive at more educated
conclusions concerning his possible place of origin in our
current day. One of the best places to begin our search is
in the prophetic Book of Daniel. In the following verses, we
discover that Daniel was numbered among the Jewish children
who were carried off to Babylon when King Nebuchadnezzar
besieged Jerusalem in the third year of the reign of King
Jehoiakim of Judah. This was about twenty years before the
final fall of Jerusalem in about 587 B.C.:

"In the third year of the reign of Jehoiakim king of Judah
came Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon unto Jerusalem, and
besieged it. And the Lord gave Jehoiakim king of Judah into
his hand, with part of the vessels of the house of God:
which he carried into the land of Shinar to the house of his
god; and he brought the vessels into the treasure house of
his god. And the king spake unto Ashpenaz the master of his
eunuchs, that he should bring certain of the children of
Israel, and of the king's seed, and of the princes; Children
in whom was no blemish, but well favoured, and skilful in
all wisdom, and cunning in knowledge, and understanding
science, and such as had ability in them to stand in the
king's palace, and whom they might teach the learning and
the tongue of the Chaldeans. And the king appointed them a
daily provision of the king's meat, and of the wine which he
drank: so nourishing them three years, that at the end
thereof they might stand before the king. Now among these
were of the children of Judah, Daniel, Hananiah, Mishael,
and Azariah: Unto whom the prince of the eunuchs gave names:
for he gave unto Daniel the name of Belteshazzar; and to
Hananiah, of Shadrach; and to Mishael, of Meshach; and to
Azariah, of Abednego." (Daniel 1:1-7)

Soon after being appointed to the court of the Babylonian
king, the young child Daniel proves himself to be a gifted
interpreter of dreams and visions. In the second year of his
reign, King Nebuchadnezzar was troubled by a dream which he
was unable to remember:

"And in the second year of the reign of Nebuchadnezzar
Nebuchadnezzar dreamed dreams, wherewith his spirit was
troubled, and his sleep brake from him. Then the king
commanded to call the magicians, and the astrologers, and
the sorcerers, and the Chaldeans, for to shew the king his
dreams. So they came and stood before the king. And the king
said unto them, I have dreamed a dream, and my spirit was
troubled to know the dream. Then spake the Chaldeans to the
king in Syriack, O king, live for ever: tell thy servants
the dream, and we will shew the interpretation. The king
answered and said to the Chaldeans, The thing is gone from
me: if ye will not make known unto me the dream, with the
interpretation thereof, ye shall be cut in pieces, and your
houses shall be made a dunghill. But if ye shew the dream,
and the interpretation thereof, ye shall receive of me gifts
and rewards and great honour: therefore shew me the dream,
and the interpretation thereof." (Daniel 2:1-6)

When all seems lost, the Lord provides Daniel with not only
the forgotten dream, but also with the interpretation of the
same. Thus Daniel is given a great opportunity to glorfiy
God before Nebuchadnezzar for the wonderful gift he has been

"Daniel answered in the presence of the king, and said, The
secret which the king hath demanded cannot the wise men, the
astrologers, the magicians, the soothsayers, shew unto the
king; But there is a God in heaven that revealeth secrets,
and maketh known to the king Nebuchadnezzar what shall be in
the latter days. Thy dream, and the visions of thy head upon
thy bed, are these;" (Daniel 2:27-28)

After making sure that Nebuchadnezzar understands that this
miracle of interpretation is a gift of God and not something
which he himself has produced, Daniel then proceeds to
interpret the night vision for the king. In part he says:

"Thou, O king, sawest, and behold a great image. This great
image, whose brightness was excellent, stood before thee;
and the form thereof was terrible. This image's head was of
fine gold, his breast and his arms of silver, his belly and
his thighs of brass, His legs of iron, his feet part of iron
and part of clay...Thou, O king, art a king of kings: for
the God of heaven hath given thee a kingdom, power, and
strength, and glory. And wheresoever the children of men
dwell, the beasts of the field and the fowls of the heaven
hath he given into thine hand, and hath made thee ruler over
them all. Thou art this head of gold."
(Daniel 2:31-33, 37-38)

In chapter seven, which takes place during the first year of
the reign of Belshazzar, Daniel also has a night vision. In
his dream, he sees four beasts rising up out of the sea:

"Daniel spake and said, I saw in my vision by night, and,
behold, the four winds of the heaven strove upon the great
sea. And four great beasts came up from the sea, diverse one
from another." (Daniel 7:2-3)

From the following verse taken from Paul's Epistle to the
Ephesians, we know that winds in the Bible sometimes
represent spiritual forces:

"Wherein in time past ye walked according to the course of
this world, according to the prince of the power of the air,
the spirit that now worketh in the children of
disobedience:" (Ephesians 2:2)

We also know that the four beasts in Daniel's dream
represent earthly kingdoms and their leaders because this is
the interpretation given to Daniel by one of the angelic
messengers later on in the same chapter:

"I came near unto one of them that stood by, and asked him
the truth of all this. So he told me, and made me know the
interpretation of the things. These great beasts, which are
four, are four kings, which shall arise out of the earth."
(Daniel 7:16-17)

By comparing Scripture with Scripture, we can also determine
that the sea from which these four beasts arise represents
the peoples and nations of the Earth. This explanation is
found in the Book of Revelation:

"And he saith unto me, The waters which thou sawest, where
the whore sitteth, are peoples, and multitudes, and nations,
and tongues." (Revelation 17:15)

Thus we see that Daniel is actually witnessing the spiritual
forces which influence the peoples and nations of the world
to produce the various rulers and their dominions. In the
very next verse, Daniel then describes Nebuchadnezzar as the
first of these four beasts, just as he was the head of gold
in the image of chapter two:

"The first was like a lion, and had eagle's wings: I beheld
till the wings thereof were plucked, and it was lifted up
from the earth, and made stand upon the feet as a man, and a
man's heart was given to it." (Daniel 7:4)

In Daniel chapter four, we discover that the wings of the
lion being plucked represent King Nebuchadnezzar's
seven-year abasement by the Lord due to his failure to
recognize God as the Supreme Sovereign who gives power to
the kings of the Earth. I explore this in much more detail
in 'The Seven Heads' series where I present some interesting
possibilities as to how this might relate to the Endtime.
Nebuchadnezzar's reign lasted approximately forty-three year
from about 605 B.C. to 562 B.C. In 561 B.C., Nebuchadnezzar
was succeeded by Evil-Merodach who was responsible for
releasing the Jewish King Jehoiachin from prison after
thirty-seven years of captivity. After less than three
years, Evil-Merodach was assassinated by Neriglissar, or
Nergal-sar-usur, his brother-in-law, in about the year 558
B.C. Neriglissar was succeeded four years later in about 554
B.C. by his young son, Labasi-Marduk, who reigned nine
months before being assassinated. Those involved in the
conspiracy then elected Nabonidus, or Nabu-na'id, to the

At this point, one source states that Nabonidus was the last
king of Babylon and ruled from about 555 B.C. to 539 B.C.
However, another source states that Belshazzar succeeded
Nabonidus to the throne around 537 B.C. making him the final
king. While other historical sources say that he was the son
of Nabonidus, the Bible states that Belshazzar was the son
of Nebuchadnezzar. However, it should be noted that the
Hebrew word 'ab' doesn't always mean one's physical father,
but is also applied to one's forefathers or predecessors.
Regardless of whose son he was, the Bible clearly states
that Belshazzar was indeed in power when Darius the Mede
took over the kingdom. This overthrow took place the very
same night of the famous 'Mene Mene Tekel Upharsin' writing
on the wall:

"In that night was Belshazzar the king of the Chaldeans
slain. And Darius the Median took the kingdom, being about
threescore and two years old." (Daniel 5:30-31)

It is important to note that, except for a few rare
occasions, such as the sudden demise of Belshazzar, the
reigns of these different rulers and their kingdoms was not
a cut and dry process. In other words, one empire didn't
just suddenly end one day and another spring up to take its
place. These kingdoms waxed and waned overlapping each other
in their influence as well as in the lands and peoples they
each dominated. For this reason, it should come as no
suprise for example, that Nebuchadnezzar spoke or at least
understood Syriac, the language of the Assyrian empire which
had dominated the area before him:

"Then spake the Chaldeans to the king in Syriac, O king,
live for ever: tell thy servants the dream, and we will shew
the interpretation." (Daniel 2:4)

We find the same thing over one hundred years later when
Artaxerxes, king of Persia, likewise ruled from Babylon; so
it is evident that the Syrian language was a widely-spoken
language. I discuss this in more detail in 'The Seven
Heads". As you will also see in that series, the Assyrians
and the Babylonians were actually of the same ethnic stock
and shared the same religion as well:

"And in the days of Artaxerxes wrote Bishlam, Mithredath,
Tabeel, and the rest of their companions, unto Artaxerxes
king of Persia; and the writing of the letter was written in
the Syrian tongue, and interpreted in the Syrian tongue."
(Ezra 4:7)

The overthrow of the Babylonian Empire by the Medes and the
Persians was in direct fulfillment of the dreams and visions
seen by both King Nebuchadnezzar and the Prophet Daniel. In
the description of the image in chapter two, Medo-Persia is
described as the breast and arms of silver, thus showing the
dual nature of the empire.

"This image's head was of fine gold, his breast and his arms
of silver, his belly and his thighs of brass,...And after
thee shall arise another kingdom inferior to thee, and
another third kingdom of brass, which shall bear rule over
all the earth." (Daniel 2:32, 39)

In the seventh chapter where Daniel has the vision of the
four beasts rising up out of the sea, Medo-Persia is
represented by a bear raised up on one side:

"And behold another beast, a second, like to a bear, and it
raised up itself on one side, and it had three ribs in the
mouth of it between the teeth of it: and they said thus unto
it, Arise, devour much flesh." (Daniel 7:5)

Cyrus the Great was the founder of the united Medo-Persian
Empire. He was known to the Jews as Kowresh or Koresh,
pronounced ko'-resh, which means 'posses thou the furnace'.
In his native Persian tongue, Cyrus was known as Koorush, or
Korrush II. He was the son of Cambyses I. Notice that the
bear is raised up on one side. This is probably because
Persia was the stronger half of this dual empire. While
Darius the Mede actually took control of Babylon at first,
he was under the authority of Cyrus the Great. As I will
explain in a moment, the three ribs in the bear's mouth may
represent the three kings who ruled prior to Xerxes I, the
richest of the Medo-Persian kings. In Daniel chapter eight,
we find yet another description of the Medo-Persian Empire:

"Then I lifted up mine eyes, and saw, and, behold, there
stood before the river a ram which had two horns: and the
two horns were high; but one was higher than the other, and
the higher came up last. I saw the ram pushing westward, and
northward, and southward; so that no beasts might stand
before him, neither was there any that could deliver out of
his hand; but he did according to his will, and became
great...The ram which thou sawest having two horns are the
kings of Media and Persia." (Daniel 8:3-4, 20)

Finally, in Daniel chapter eleven, Daniel is given a glimpse
into the future concerning the Persian kings who will succeed
Darius the Mede, the current viceroy of Babylon under Cyrus:

"Also I in the first year of Darius the Mede, even I, stood
to confirm and to strengthen him. And now will I shew thee
the truth. Behold, there shall stand up yet three kings in
Persia; and the fourth shall be far richer than they all:
and by his strength through his riches he shall stir up all
against the realm of Grecia." (Daniel 11:1-2)

Based on the assumption that the Darius the Mede mentioned
in the above verse is the same Darius who took the kingdom
from Belshazzar in Daniel chapter five, according to secular
historical records, this fourth Persian king is most likely
Xerxes who ruled from about 486 B.C. to 465 B.C. As I
explain in 'The Seven Heads' series, the succession of
Medo-Persian kings is a bit confusing, and there are
conflicting views held amongst historians. Part of this
confusion is due to the fact that these kings were known by
different names by different cultures; plus there were a
number of different rulers by the name of Darius, Ahasuerus
and Artaxerxes. The Darius in the above verse is believed to
have ruled for a short period as viceroy of Babylon under
Cyrus the Great. Following is a short table which shows the
proper sequence of the Persian kings with whom we are
concerned, along with their alternative names. Please note
that Darius the Great is not the same Darius who ruled at
the same time as Cyrus the Great:
Ruler's Name:      Date:      Persian Name:     Bible Name:
------------       ----       ------------      ----------
Cyrus The Great    539-530    Koorush           Cyrus
(Cyrus II)
Cambyses II        530-521    Cambujieh or      Ahasuerus
(Kambeses II)                 Kamboodhia
Pseudo Smerdis     521        Berooyeh          Artaxerxes
Darius the Great   521-486    Darryoosh or      Darius
(Darius I)                    Dayara-Vahusha
Xerxes             486-465    Khashayar or      Ahasurerus
Artaxerxes I       464-423    Ardeshier         Artaxerxes
                              Deraz Dast
Cambyses II was the son and successor of Cyrus the Great,
who is undoubtedly the most well-known and well-loved of
Persian kings due to the fact that he not only founded the
Persian Empire after uniting the Medes and the Persians, but
also because it was during his reign that the Jews obtained
their freedom from Babylonian rule after serving their
Seventy Years of Captivity. This is discussed in an article
of the same name as well as in 'The Seven Heads' series. It
was up to Cyrus's son Cambysses II, who was named after his
grandfather, to bring Egypt under Persian dominion.

It was while Cambyses II was away in Egypt that a usurper
named Pseudo Smerdis temporarily ascended to the Persian
throne pretending to be Smerdis, another son of Cyrus the
Great. It appears that Cambyses II died during the return
trip to Persia. It is believed that Pseudo Smerdis may be
the Artaxerxes mentioned in the Book of Ezra who temporarily
halted the Jews' work in Jerusalem. Considering that he was
a usurper, it makes perfect sense that he would be the one
to try to frustrate the work in Jeruslaem which had been
ordered by Cyrus, and then continued by his son Cambyses II.

While Pseudo Smerdis was defeated and killed by Darius the
Great after serving only a few months as the Persian
monarch, it still took Darius several years to squelch the
local rebellions. This was made easier by the fact that the
Persian army had remained loyal to him despite the trouble
caused by Pseudo Smerdis. Once Darius had firmly established
his power, he began the work at Persepolis, the ruins of
which can still be found today about thirty miles north of
Shiraz, Iran. The main hall bears the inscription, 'I am
Darius, great king, king of kings, king of lands who
constructed this palace'. This work was later finished by
Xerxes and Artaxerxes.

Like Cyrus the Great, Darius the Great was also a great
king. It was during his reign that the darik, also known as
the dram or drachma, was probably introduced to Israel. This
is discussed in more detail in 'Mondex And The Mark Of The
Beast'. As the legal heir of the Persian Empire, Darius also
began to groom his son Xerxes to succeed in his footsteps.
According to one source, Darius the Great was killed during
the sixth year of his reign in the Battle of Marathon where
he was beheaded by the Athenians. However, other historians
challenge this view stating that he actually ruled until 486
B.C. when his son Xerxes became the next legitimate king of
the Persian Empire.

According to the prophecy given to Daniel, 'the fourth shall
be far richer than they all: and by his strength through his
riches he shall stir up all against the realm of Grecia'.
This seems to be perfectly fulfilled in Xerxes. As can be
seen by the above table, Xerxes, who was known to the Jews
as Ahasuerus, was indeed the fourth king following Cyrus the
Great. The beginning of the book of Esther seems to confirm
Xerxes' wealth, power, fame and the vastness of his empire
with the following opening verses:

"Now it came to pass in the days of Ahasuerus, (this is
Ahasuerus which reigned, from India even unto Ethiopia, over
an hundred and seven and twenty provinces:) That in those
days, when the king Ahasuerus sat on the throne of his
kingdom, which was in Shushan the palace, In the third year
of his reign, he made a feast unto all his princes and his
servants; the power of Persia and Media, the nobles and
princes of the provinces, being before him: When he shewed
the riches of his glorious kingdom and the honour of his
excellent majesty many days, even an hundred and fourscore
days. And when these days were expired, the king made a
feast unto all the people that were present in Shushan the
palace, both unto great and small, seven days, in the court
of the garden of the king's palace;" (Esther 1:1-5)

The fact that the young Jewess Esther actually married this
great king who was a descendant of Cyrus and Darius, who
themselves had shown great kindness to her people, is in my
view another confirmation that Xerxes, or Ahasuerus, was
indeed the fourth Persian king prophesied by Daniel. The
prophecy also states that he would stir up his empire
against the Grecians. According to one source which I
mentioned earlier, because of his father's early death at
the hands of the Athenians, (if it is to be believed),
Xerxes invaded Greece and demolished many of the temples in
the city of Athens. However, this source then states that he
suffered a naval defeat at the Battle of Salamis after which
he fled back to Persia. It is then that we get into the very
interesting story of Xerxes and Artaxerxes which is
explained in detail in the article 'The Seventy Weeks
Prophecy Of Daniel'.

Notice that while the prophecy states that from Darius the
Mede there would be three more Persian kings followed by a
fourth king who would be the richest of them all, it does
not state that he would be the final Persian king. From the
historical record, we know that there were in fact several
more kings after Xerxes. Following a bit of political
treachery, it is believed that Xerxes, (or Ahasuerus), was
eventually succeeded to the throne by his 'son' Artaxerxes.
It is this Artaxerxes who issued the final proclamation to
rebuild Jerusalem and the Temple of Solomon following its
destruction over one hundred years before by Nebuchadnezzar.
Cyrus the Great and Darius the Great had likewise issued
similar proclamations; however, the feat wasn't actually
accomplished unto the reign of Artaxerxes due to strong
interference from the enemies of the Jews. Again, this is
discussed more fully in 'The Seven Heads' series which I
encourage you to read:

"And the elders of the Jews builded, and they prospered
through the prophesying of Haggai the prophet and Zechariah
the son of Iddo. And they builded, and finished it,
according to the commandment of the God of Israel, and
according to the commandment of Cyrus, and Darius, and
Artaxerxes king of Persia." (Ezra 6:14)

You may have noticed that I placed the word 'son' in quotes
in the previous paragraph. The reason I did this is because
some serious questions have been raised concerning the true
identity of Xerxes and Artaxerxes. As I explain in the
article 'The Seventy Weeks Prophecy Of Daniel', there is
some speculation which suggests that these two kings may
have actually been one and the same person who, partially
due to Persian tradition, and partially due to political
deceit in order to protect himself, may have changed his
name. If Xerxes/Ahasuerus and Artaxerxes were indeed one and
the same person, that is, Xerxes the king who simply changed
his name, then it is easy to understand why, in the
twentieth year of his reign after having married Esther, he
would be motivated to issue the final decree to rebuild the
walls around Jerusalem. Could it be that the queen mentioned
in the following verses is actually referring to Queen
Esther who married him as Xerxes/Ahasuerus, but now
continues to be his Queen even though he calls himself

"And it came to pass in the month Nisan, in the twentieth
year of Artaxerxes the king, that wine was before him: and I
took up the wine, and gave it unto the king. Now I had not
been beforetime sad in his presence. Wherefore the king said
unto me, Why is thy countenance sad, seeing thou art not
sick? this is nothing else but sorrow of heart. Then I was
very sore afraid, And said unto the king, Let the king live
for ever: why should not my countenance be sad, when the
city, the place of my fathers' sepulchres, lieth waste, and
the gates thereof are consumed with fire? Then the king said
unto me, For what dost thou make request? So I prayed to the
God of heaven. And I said unto the king, If it please the
king, and if thy servant have found favour in thy sight,
that thou wouldest send me unto Judah, unto the city of my
fathers' sepulchres, that I may build it. And the king said
unto me, (the queen also sitting by him,) For how long shall
thy journey be? and when wilt thou return? So it pleased the
king to send me; and I set him a time." (Nehemiah 2:1-6)

What I also find strange is that in the previous verse from
Ezra we are told 'and according to the commandment of Cyrus,
and Darius, and Artaxerxes king of Persia'. Considering that
Xerxes/Ahasuerus was the son of Darius who supposedly
reigned BEFORE Artaxerxes, why is he not mentioned here? It
seems odd that he would marry Esther, show great favor to
the Jews, yet do absolutely nothing during his twenty-one
year reign to allow them to resume their work in Jerusalem
as had been commanded by both his father Darius, and earlier
by Cyrus the Great, a distant relative. If we accept the
traditional historical record, absolutely nothing would be
done to allow the Jews to resume their work in Jerusalem
until twenty years into the reign of Artaxerxes, the
supposed 'son of' Xerxes. To suggest then that at least
forty-one years had passed before this occurred seems rather
unusual to me. Thus, I think there might be something to the
Xerxes/Artaxerxes deception. For more details concerning
this deception, please refer to 'The Seventy Weeks Prophecy
Of Daniel'.

Following the reign of Artaxerxes, also known as Artaxerxes
Longimanus due to his 'long hand', there were possibly as
many as seven more Persian kings before Persia was absorbed
by the Grecian Empire. These were the following:
Ruler's Name:                     Approx. Dates:
Xerxes II                         425-424 B.C.
Sogdianos                         424-423
Darius II the Bastard             423-404
Artaxerxes II the Mindful         404-359
Artaxerxes III.                   359-338
Arses                             338-336
Darius III                        336-330
As can be seen, before Darius II ascended to the Persian
throne, there was a bit of a power struggle going on which
resulted in two interim kings. Darius II, who was the son of
Artaxerxes, was also known as Ochus or Nothus. It is
believed that he may possibly have been the Darius who ruled
during the days of Nehemiah. It was during the reign of
Darius III, also known as Codomannus, in about the year 333
B.C., that Alexander the Great invaded Iran, then known as
Persia, thus ending Persian domination.

In the image of Daniel chapter two, we see the Greece was
the third empire represented by the belly and thighs of

"This image's head was of fine gold, his breast and his arms
of silver, his belly and his thighs of brass,...And after
thee shall arise another kingdom inferior to thee, and
another third kingdom of brass, which shall bear rule over
all the earth." (Daniel 2:32, 39)

In Daniel chapter seven, we find Greece represented by a
four-headed leopard having four wings on its back:

"After this I beheld, and lo another, like a leopard, which
had upon the back of it four wings of a fowl; the beast had
also four heads; and dominion was given to it."
(Daniel 7:6)

In the above verses, the fact that Greece is represented by
a leopard with four wings is very significant as it
symbolizes the great speed with which Alexander conquered
the known world of his day. His rise to power and rule over
the Grecian empire only lasted about thirteen years, from
about 336 B.C. to 323 B.C. At the height of his power, his
empire was divided into four smaller weaker kingdoms as
represented by the four heads. In Daniel chapter eight, we
see a picture of the Medo-Persian ram pushing against the
Grecian he-goat and then being crushed by the Grecian king:

"And as I was considering, behold, an he goat came from the
west on the face of the whole earth, and touched not the
ground: and the goat had a notable horn between his eyes.
And he came to the ram that had two horns, which I had seen
standing before the river, and ran unto him in the fury of
his power. And I saw him come close unto the ram, and he was
moved with choler against him, and smote the ram, and brake
his two horns: and there was no power in the ram to stand
before him, but he cast him down to the ground, and stamped
upon him: and there was none that could deliver the ram out
of his hand. Therefore the he goat waxed very great: and
when he was strong, the great horn was broken; and for it
came up four notable ones toward the four winds of
heaven...And the rough goat is the king of Grecia: and the
great horn that is between his eyes is the first king. Now
that being broken, whereas four stood up for it, four
kingdoms shall stand up out of the nation, but not in his
power." (Daniel 8:5-8, 21-22)

Notice again that the he-goat does not touch the ground.
This probably signifies the speed with which Alexander the
Great conquered the known world of his day. Alexander is
symbolized by the 'notable' or 'great horn', the first king
of Greece. As I explain in 'The Seven Heads' series,
Alexander the Great was also known as 'The King of Javan'
being as the Greeks were descended from Javan as per the
Book of Genesis. In the above verses we see a very graphical
picture of the horns of Medo-Persia being totally defeated
by the overwhelming forces of Alexander the Macedonian. This
conflict between Medo-Persia and Greece began in the days of
Darius the Great, (a.k.a. Darius I), and finds its
conclusion with the defeat of Darius Codomannus, or Darius
III, as I explained earlier.

Up to this point, we have been discussing a lot of ancient
history which may seem irrelevant to our quest to discover
the place of origin of the Endtime Beast. However, with the
demise of the Grecian Empire, we begin to close in on some
important events which tie in directly with the roots of the
Beast. If there is one thing we know from history, it is
that no world power lasts forever. As stated above, upon
Alexander's death, his empire was subsequently divided into
four land areas, each ruled by a different general. This
fact is repeated again a third time in chapter eleven right
after we read the prophecies concerning the four Persian

"And a mighty king shall stand up, that shall rule with
great dominion, and do according to his will. And when he
shall stand up, his kingdom shall be broken, and shall be
divided toward the four winds of heaven; and not to his
posterity, nor according to his dominion which he ruled: for
his kingdom shall be plucked up, even for others beside
those." (Daniel 11:3-4)

Notice the words 'and not to his posterity.' This
corresponds to the words "but not in his power' in the
previous verses in chapter eight. Following Alexander's
demise, the four key heirs of his empire are believed to
have been Ptolemy I of the southern kingdom of Egypt,
Seleucus I of the eastern area of Babylonia, Antigonus of
the northern kingdom comprised of Syria and Asia Minor, and
finally, Antipater of the western area of Macedonia and

Returning to Nebuchadnezzar's vision in Daniel chapter two,
we discover that below the belly and thighs of brass, there
are two legs made of iron:

"His legs of iron, his feet part of iron and part of clay...
And the fourth kingdom shall be strong as iron: forasmuch as
iron breaketh in pieces and subdueth all things: and as iron
that breaketh all these, shall it break in pieces and
bruise." (Daniel 2:33, 40)

Chapter seven follows with a very similar image of this
fourth kingdom describing it as a terrible beast with great
teeth of iron:

"After this I saw in the night visions, and behold a fourth
beast, dreadful and terrible, and strong exceedingly; and it
had great iron teeth: it devoured and brake in pieces, and
stamped the residue with the feet of it: and it was diverse
from all the beasts that were before it; and it had ten
horns...Thus he said, The fourth beast shall be the fourth
kingdom upon earth, which shall be diverse from all
kingdoms, and shall devour the whole earth, and shall tread
it down, and break it in pieces." (Daniel 7:7, 23)

Taking a look at the historical record, we know that
following the demise of the Grecian Empire, the next great
power to dominate Europe and the Middle East was the Roman
Empire. However, as I will explain later in this article,
Rome's rise to dominance did not occur immediately following
the division of the Grecian Empire in about 323 B.C. For
almost two hundred years, the successors of Alexander the
Great continued to war against each other in their quest for
dominance over the Middle East. The iron fist of Roman rule
was solidly felt in Israel on Yom Kippur of 63 B.C. when
Roman general Pompey marched down from his conquests in
Syria, and conquered Jerusalem for Caesar Augustus. For the
next four hundred years, Israel would remain under the
domination of Rome, until about the year 330 A.D. While the
rule of the Caesars was indeed harsh, it created a period of
relative peace over much of the known world. In fact, it was
at the height of the Roman Empire, during the reign of
Tiberius Caesar, (42 B.C. to 37 A.D. approximately), that
our Saviour was born. This is discussed in more detail in
part two of 'The Seven Heads' series.

The year 330 A.D. is very significant to the prophecies of
Daniel, for it was it was around that year that the prophecy
of the two legs of iron was fulfilled when the Roman Empire
was divided into East and West. This division was due in
part to the strong influence that the Early Church was
having on Roman citizens. With the proclamation of the
'Edict of Milan', Christianity was declared a 'religio
licita', or legal religion, and Constantine established
himself as the emperor of the eastern 'Christianized' half
of the empire which became known as the Byzantine Empire. He
ruled from the ancient Greek city of Byzantium which he
renamed Constantinople. Today it is called Istanbul, Turkey.

As I discuss in other articles, over the next several
hundred years, an 'approved' form of Christianity continued
to spread throughout the Roman Empire. Eventually, central
authority returned to Rome and the Roman Empire became known
as the Holy Roman Empire. The emperors of Rome became known
as the popes, the 'Founding Fathers' of the Roman Catholic
Church, who ruled the territories of central Italy known as
the Papal States until 1870. In 1929, Vatican City was
declared a sovereign papal state. Considering Constantine's
original hatred of Christians, this sudden turn-around has
left historians open to a lot of speculation as to exactly
how this reversal came about. Some claim that a miraculous
military victory resulted in his conversion to the faith.
Others speculate that it was simply a marriage of
convenience between religion and politics brought about by
the craftiness of Constantine's underlings. As I stated at
the beginning of this article, it is for this reason that
some consider Roman Catholicism to be the epitome of Babylon
the Great Whore riding the seven-headed political Beast of
the Book of Revelation.

Having now established the historical background and
prophetic significance of the prophecies of Daniel, we are
now going to probe a bit deeper and take a look at some
things which are still a bit muddled in the minds of most
eschatologists. I myself have been mystified by these things
for a good many years. While some claim that most, if not
all of the Daniel prophecies, have already been fulfilled
and form a part of history, others like myself insist that
there are still some major events which are yet to occur,
quite possibly in the very near future! In continuing to
read from the Book of Daniel, we are provided with a
prophetic picture of what will happen to the remnants of the
Roman Empire:

"And whereas thou sawest the feet and toes, part of potters'
clay, and part of iron, the kingdom shall be divided; but
there shall be in it of the strength of the iron, forasmuch
as thou sawest the iron mixed with miry clay. And as the
toes of the feet were part of iron, and part of clay, so the
kingdom shall be partly strong, and partly broken. And
whereas thou sawest iron mixed with miry clay, they shall
mingle themselves with the seed of men: but they shall not
cleave one to another, even as iron is not mixed with clay."
(Daniel 2:41-43)

In a historical sense, the above description might be a
reference to the many smaller kingdoms, states and countries
which resulted from the breakup of the Roman Empire. I
accept this interpretation along with the thought that the
iron and the clay probably represent two different types of
governments. It has been proposed by some that they might
represent democracies and dictatorships. Following this line
of reasoning, democracies would be represented by the clay,
since a democratic society is supposed to be one ruled by
the people, and people are made from clay. On the other
hand, iron would be a more tough-fisted form of government
since, while it is likewise taken from the ground, it is a
much harder and more durable substance. The fact that the
iron and clay don't mingle could be an obvious reference to
the fact that democracies and dictatorships just don't mix
very well; although in this day and age, some democratic
societies like the United States of America, are known to
secretly support such strongmen if it helps to achieve their
political agenda. While this interpretation is quite valid,
further thinking and studying has led me to consider other
possibilities. You will discover them in 'The Seven Heads'.

Considering the bulk of the information we have covered thus
far, it is easy to interpret the above verses as being a
part of ancient history, that is, the demise of the Roman
Empire. However, this view should be held with some
reservation as the Prophet Daniel makes it very clear that
his prophecies will find their completion in the Last Days
of the kingdoms of men:

"So he came near where I stood: and when he came, I was
afraid, and fell upon my face: but he said unto me,
Understand, O son of man: for at the time of the end shall
be the vision." (Daniel 8:17)

"And he said, Behold, I will make thee know what shall be in
the last end of the indignation: for at the time appointed
the end shall be." (Daniel 8:19)

"And in the latter time of their kingdom, when the
transgressors are come to the full, a king of fierce
countenance, and understanding dark sentences, shall stand
up." (Daniel 8:23)

"And the vision of the evening and the morning which was
told is true: wherefore shut thou up the vision; for it
shall be for many days." (Daniel 8:26)

"In the third year of Cyrus king of Persia a thing was
revealed unto Daniel, whose name was called Belteshazzar;
and the thing was true, but the time appointed was long: and
he understood the thing, and had understanding of the
vision." (Daniel 10:1)

"Now I am come to make thee understand what shall befall thy
people in the latter days: for yet the vision is for many
days." (Daniel 10:14)

"And in the end of years they shall join themselves
together; for the king's daughter of the south shall come to
the king of the north to make an agreement: but she shall
not retain the power of the arm; neither shall he stand, nor
his arm: but she shall be given up, and they that brought
her, and he that begat her, and he that strengthened her in
these times." (Daniel 11:6)

"And both these kings' hearts shall be to do mischief, and
they shall speak lies at one table; but it shall not
prosper: for yet the end shall be at the time appointed."
(Daniel 11:27)

"And some of them of understanding shall fall, to try them,
and to purge, and to make them white, even to the time of
the end: because it is yet for a time appointed."
(Daniel 11:35)

"But thou, O Daniel, shut up the words, and seal the book,
even to the time of the end: many shall run to and fro, and
knowledge shall be increased." (Daniel 12:4)

"And I heard, but I understood not: then said I, O my Lord,
what shall be the end of these things? And he said, Go thy
way, Daniel: for the words are closed up and sealed till the
time of the end." (Daniel 12:8-9)

"But go thou thy way till the end be: for thou shalt rest,
and stand in thy lot at the end of the days." (Daniel 12:13)

Considering such a preponderance of Scriptures which all
contain these similar phrases, I find it difficult that
anyone would view the prophecies of Daniel as dealing solely
with events of the ancient past. As I stated at the
beginning of this article, the challenge then is to try to
separate what has already happened from that which is yet to
be fulfilled. Without a good knowledge of history, or at
least a good source of historical resources, this can be a
difficult task. What makes it even more difficult is that
some prophecies seem to have intermediate fulfillments, and
then an ultimate fulfillment. One example I have cited
before is that of Adolf Hitler. While he was not the Beast,
Hitler may have been a foreshadow of the final Beast yet to

One thing which immediately stands out in the prophecies of
Daniel is the mention of the Ten Toes in the image of
chapter two. Some have suggested that they might be a
modern-day extension of the Roman Empire such as some of the
countries which form a part of the European Union. Whether
they are or not, one thing we do know is that in chapter
seven we have Daniel calling them Ten Horns, the very same
term used by the Apostle John when discussing the ten kings
who temporarily give their power to the Beast in Revelation.
These two books were written hundreds of years apart, so
this connection can only be something which was foreordained
by God. Besides the connections which I show in this current
article, part one of 'The Seven Heads' deals with the same
topic. As to exactly when these ten kings will be in
existence, Daniel makes it clear that it will be at the very
end of time when the Lord sets up His eternal Kingdom:

"Thou sawest till that a stone was cut out without hands,
which smote the image upon his feet that were of iron and
clay, and brake them to pieces. Then was the iron, the clay,
the brass, the silver, and the gold, broken to pieces
together, and became like the chaff of the summer
threshingfloors; and the wind carried them away, that no
place was found for them: and the stone that smote the image
became a great mountain, and filled the whole earth...And in
the days of these kings shall the God of heaven set up a
kingdom, which shall never be destroyed: and the kingdom
shall not be left to other people, but it shall break in
pieces and consume all these kingdoms, and it shall stand
for ever. Forasmuch as thou sawest that the stone was cut
out of the mountain without hands, and that it brake in
pieces the iron, the brass, the clay, the silver, and the
gold; the great God hath made known to the king what shall
come to pass hereafter: and the dream is certain, and the
interpretation thereof sure." (Daniel 2:34-35, 44-45)

Following my practice of comparing Scripture with Scripture,
we discover that this Stone is referring to none other than
Jesus Christ who will someday return to destroy the
governments of man and set up His own Kingdom of Heaven on

"And did all drink the same spiritual drink: for they drank
of that spiritual Rock that followed them: and that Rock was
Christ." (1 Corinthians 10:4)

"And are built upon the foundation of the apostles and
prophets, Jesus Christ himself being the chief corner
stone;" (Ephesians 2:20)

In a spiritual sense, God's Kingdom has been filling the
Earth like a great mountain since Jesus's Victory on the
Cross of Calvary almost two thousand years ago. As Jesus
Himself said:

"...The kingdom of God cometh not with observation: Neither
shall they say, Lo here! or, lo there! for, behold, the
kingdom of God is within you." (Luke 17:20b-21)

However, this has not happened in a physical sense, and will
not happen until Christ returns to subdue all Earthly
governments, including the reign of the Beast, the False
Prophet and the ten nations who follow them. Daniel made
clear that it would happen 'in the days of these kings',
meaning at the end of man's system in the days of the Ten
Toes or Horns. Once that is accomplished, the Lord will
rule and reign on the Earth for one thousand years during
the Millennium. He will be setting up His physical Kingdom on
Earth, just as He prayed to His Father: 'Thy Kingdom come,
thy will be done, on Earth as it is in Heaven'. When all of
this will have been accomplished in a spiritual sense, the
stone growing into a mountain will be manifested in a
physical sense when the Heavenly City, New Jerusalem,
descends from God to settle on or just above the surface of
the New Earth. In fact, like Daniel, John described it being
shaped somewhat like a mountain, possibly a pyramid:

"And the city lieth foursquare, and the length is as large
as the breadth: and he measured the city with the reed,
twelve thousand furlongs. The length and the breadth and the
height of it are equal." (Revelation 21:16)

The only way its height could be the same as its length and
breadth would be if it were a perfect cube, or else a
pyramid-like structure, possibly with the Throne of God at
the apex! It is interesting to note that the American seal
on the back of a one dollar bill contains just such a
pyramid. In fact, like the Heavenly City, this pyramid
contains twelve levels. There has been a lot of speculation
made regarding this Great Seal. Some attribute evil
connotations to it, while others suggest the exact opposite.

Having now established that Daniel chapter two extends from
the time of the Babylonian Empire all the way up to the
Endtime, we must ask ourselves if it isn't possible that the
remaining chapters might not do the same as well. After
describing Rome as a terrible beast quite diverse from all
of the other beasts in chapter seven, Daniel then proceeds
to further describe the Ten Horns on the Beast which, as we
now know, must exist towards the very end of our current
worldly systems:

"I considered the horns, and, behold, there came up among
them another little horn, before whom there were three of
the first horns plucked up by the roots: and, behold, in
this horn were eyes like the eyes of man, and a mouth
speaking great things...And the ten horns out of this
kingdom are ten kings that shall arise: and another shall
rise after them; and he shall be diverse from the first, and
he shall subdue three kings." (Daniel 7:8, 24)

Here we see a picture of an eleventh horn appearing in the
midst of the first Ten Horns. This king is quite different
from the first ten. Three of the horns being plucked up may
represent three Endtime nations either being subdued or
destroyed so that the Beast can come to power. The fact that
all ten give their power over to him in order to destroy
Babylon the Great, would indicate that they are merely
subdued or coerced and not totally destroyed. I take a more
in-depth look at these possibilities in 'The Seven Heads'
series. The fact that this horn, the Beast, will speak
against God is supported by quite a few other verses
throughout the Bible beginning in Daniel itself:

"And he shall speak great words against the most High, and
shall wear out the saints of the most High, and think to
change times and laws: and they shall be given into his hand
until a time and times and the dividing of time."
(Daniel 7:25)

"And the king shall do according to his will; and he shall
exalt himself, and magnify himself above every god, and
shall speak marvellous things against the God of gods, and
shall prosper till the indignation be accomplished: for that
that is determined shall be done." (Daniel 11:36)

"And there was given unto him a mouth speaking great things
and blasphemies; and power was given unto him to continue
forty and two months. And he opened his mouth in blasphemy
against God, to blaspheme his name, and his tabernacle, and
them that dwell in heaven." (Revelation 13:5-6)

From Daniel to Revelation, we see that this 'little horn',
the Beast, is one and the same person speaking blasphemies
against God for a period of three and a half years,
forty-two months, or one thousand two hundred and sixty
days. Just as we saw the end of man's earthly rule and the
setting up of God's Kingdom in Daniel chapter two, the same
scenario is repeated in chapter seven after the destruction
of the Beast and the Ten Horns:

"I beheld then because of the voice of the great words which
the horn spake: I beheld even till the beast was slain, and
his body destroyed, and given to the burning flame. As
concerning the rest of the beasts, they had their dominion
taken away: yet their lives were prolonged for a season and
time...But the judgment shall sit, and they shall take away
his dominion, to consume and to destroy it unto the end."
(Daniel 7:11-12, 26)

The above verses are almost identical to the fate described
for the Beast and the False Prophet in the Book of

"And the beast was taken, and with him the false prophet
that wrought miracles before him, with which he deceived
them that had received the mark of the beast, and them that
worshipped his image. These both were cast alive into a lake
of fire burning with brimstone." (Revelation 19:20)

Notice that in Daniel 7:12, the Prophet describes the Ten
Horns as 'beasts.' Following the destruction of the Beast,
Daniel then proceeds to describe how God's Kingdom will be
established, just as he did in chapter two. Notice that just
as John described both God the Father and Jesus the Son in
the Heavenly City, here too Daniel describes the 'Son of
man' coming to the 'Ancient of days':

"I saw in the night visions, and, behold, one like the Son
of man came with the clouds of heaven, and came to the
Ancient of days, and they brought him near before him. And
there was given him dominion, and glory, and a kingdom, that
all people, nations, and languages, should serve him: his
dominion is an everlasting dominion, which shall not pass
away, and his kingdom that which shall not be
destroyed...But the saints of the most High shall take the
kingdom, and possess the kingdom for ever, even for ever and
ever...And the kingdom and dominion, and the greatness of
the kingdom under the whole heaven, shall be given to the
people of the saints of the most High, whose kingdom is an
everlasting kingdom, and all dominions shall serve and obey
him." (Daniel 7:13-14, 18, 27)

In Daniel chapter eight, we find yet another mention of this
same 'little horn' who wars against the Saints of the Most
High. In previous verses from chapter eight, I showed how
Alexander the Great's empire was divided into four land
areas by his generals. In the following account, we make the
connection between the past and the near future as the Beast
arises from one of the four political divisions of the
Grecian Empire:

"And out of one of them came forth a little horn, which
waxed exceeding great, toward the south, and toward the
east, and toward the pleasant land. And it waxed great, even
to the host of heaven; and it cast down some of the host and
of the stars to the ground, and stamped upon them. Yea, he
magnified himself even to the prince of the host, and by him
the daily sacrifice was taken away, and the place of his
sanctuary was cast down. And an host was given him against
the daily sacrifice by reason of transgression, and it cast
down the truth to the ground; and it practised, and
prospered...And in the latter time of their kingdom, when
the transgressors are come to the full, a king of fierce
countenance, and understanding dark sentences, shall stand
up. And his power shall be mighty, but not by his own power:
and he shall destroy wonderfully, and shall prosper, and
practise, and shall destroy the mighty and the holy people.
And through his policy also he shall cause craft to prosper
in his hand; and he shall magnify himself in his heart, and
by peace shall destroy many: he shall also stand up against
the Prince of princes; but he shall be broken without hand."
(Daniel 8:9-12, 23-25)

At this point, it is important to again remind the reader
that some prophecies appear to have a partial fulfillment,
and then a final fulfillment. In the case of the above
verses, one school of thought suggests that this mention of
the 'little horn' might be referring to Antiochus IV
Epiphanes who invaded Israel, referred to here as 'the
pleasant land'. He is said to have stopped the Jewish 'daily
sacrifice', (that is, the 'continual burnt offering'
prescribed by the Lord through Moses), and defiled the
Temple by offering swine on the Temple altar, which was in
direct contradiction to the Torah, the Jewish books of the
Law given to Moses. This is believed to have occurred around
168-167 B.C. This would indeed be 'in the latter time of
their kingdom' as Rome was beginning to flex its muscles and
would soon become the dominant power. These verses will be
given additional discussion further on in this article.

At this point, we are now going to return to Daniel chapter
eleven where we discussed the four Persian kings, followed
by the demise of Alexander the Great and the Grecian Empire.
It is interesting to note that the following revelation
concerning the kings of the north and south, and the rise
and reign of the Beast, was so important, that a three-week
battle in the spiritual realm ensued while Daniel faithfully
fasted waiting for the revelation. Considering the spiritual
warfare which was waged to keep these truths from us, should
we not all strive to understand them?:

"In those days I Daniel was mourning three full weeks."
(Daniel 10:2)

"Then said he unto me, Fear not, Daniel: for from the first
day that thou didst set thine heart to understand, and to
chasten thyself before thy God, thy words were heard, and I
am come for thy words. But the prince of the kingdom of
Persia withstood me one and twenty days: but, lo, Michael,
one of the chief princes, came to help me; and I remained
there with the kings of Persia." (Daniel 10:12-13)

To reiterate what I said earlier, following the demise of
Alexander the Great in 323 B.C., his empire was divided by
his generals into four land areas: Ptolemy I took the
southern kingdom of Egypt, Seleucus took the eastern area of
Babylonia, Antigonus took the northern kingdom comprised of
Syria and Asia Minor, (now known as Turkey) , and Antipater
took the western area of Macedonia and Greece.

Based on the above, in the following prophecies, the king of
the south must be referring to the various leaders of the
Egyptian kingdom who went by the name of Ptolemy, while the
king of the north must pertain to the Seleucid kings who
ruled over Syria and Asia Minor, their powerbase being in
Seleucia, located in northwestern Syria. In fact, in the
book of Jeremiah, even Nebuchadnezzar of Babylon is referred
to as coming from the north, which would put him in the same
league as the Seleucid Kings: Seleucus, Antiochus, etc. I
have much more to say about this in 'The Seven Heads'
series. You definitely don't want to miss it!

When I first wrote this article, I did not rely upon very
much supplementary data to confirm the countries identified
with these two dynasties. As I've stated before, the Bible
is self-interpretting in many places if one just knows how
to find the connecting verses. If something can be proven
directly from the Bible, and then secular history serves to
further confirm what God has already revealed in His Word,
this adds even more to the veracity of the Scriptures as
being the inspired and inerrant Word of God. As the Apostle
Paul wrote to Timothy:

"All scripture is given by inspiration of God, and is
profitable for doctrine, for reproof, for correction, for
instruction in righteousness:" (2 Timothy 3:16)

The Apostle Peter also wrote along these same lines when he
said the following:

"For the prophecy came not in old time by the will of man:
but holy men of God spake as they were moved by the Holy
Ghost." (2 Peter 1:21)

While some Bibles actually use the names Egypt and Syria in
these prophecies, the 1611 Authorized King James Version of
the Bible does not; thus, I was totally in the dark as to
who these two kings might be. When I later discovered that
others had come to the same consensus as myself, it was
truly a thrill for me. To show how I came to the conclusion
that Egypt was the southern kingdom mentioned in Daniel,
allow me to present the following information. My first lead
was found in the following verses which discuss the queen of
Sheba, the queen of the south who went to see and experience
the glory and wisdom of King Solomon:

"And when the queen of Sheba heard of the fame of Solomon
concerning the name of the LORD, she came to prove him with
hard questions." (1 Kings 10:1)

"And when the queen of Sheba had seen all Solomon's wisdom,
and the house that he had built,..." (1 Kings 10:4)

"And she gave the king an hundred and twenty talents of gold,
and of spices very great store, and precious stones: there
came no more such abundance of spices as these which the
queen of Sheba gave to king Solomon." (1 Kings 10:10)

"And king Solomon gave unto the queen of Sheba all her
desire, whatsoever she asked, beside that which Solomon gave
her of his royal bounty. So she turned and went to her own
country, she and her servants." (1 Kings 10:13)

In discussing these famous encounters between King Solomon
and the Queen of Sheba, Jesus had the following to say:

"The queen of the south shall rise up in the judgment with
this generation, and shall condemn it: for she came from the
uttermost parts of the earth to hear the wisdom of Solomon;
and, behold, a greater than Solomon is here."
(Matthew 12:42)

"The queen of the south shall rise up in the judgment with
the men of this generation, and condemn them: for she came
from the utmost parts of the earth to hear the wisdom of
Solomon; and, behold, a greater than Solomon is here."
(Luke 11:31)

As can be seen, Jesus equated the queen of the south with
the queen of Sheba because they are one and the same person.
This then leaves us with one question: where or what is
Sheba? Again, the Bible is self-interpetting and provides
the answer for us in the Book of Genesis:

"And the sons of Cush; Seba, and Havilah, and Sabtah, and
Raamah, and Sabtecha: and the sons of Raamah; Sheba, and
Dedan." (Genesis 10:7)

The above verse demonstrates that Sheba was the grandson of
Cush, and the great grandson of Ham, who was one of the
three sons of Noah. In essence, he belonged to the races
which eventually settled in north Africa.

In the twenty-first chapter of Genesis, we find the story of
Abraham, Sarah, Isaac, Hagar and Ishmael. At Sarah's
insistence, Abraham sent away Hagar and her son Ishmael
after Ishamel had mocked them:

"And Sarah saw the son of Hagar the Egyptian, which she had
born unto Abraham, mocking. Wherefore she said unto Abraham,
Cast out this bondwoman and her son: for the son of this
bondwoman shall not be heir with my son, even with
Isaac...And Abraham rose up early in the morning, and took
bread, and a bottle of water, and gave it unto Hagar,
putting it on her shoulder, and the child, and sent her
away: and she departed, and wandered in the wilderness of
Beersheba." (Genesis 21:9-10, 14)

As I explain in other articles, it is this very same Ishmael
who later married an Egyptian woman and became the father of
the princes of the modern-day Arabs:

"And he dwelt in the wilderness of Paran: and his mother took
him a wife out of the land of Egypt." (Genesis 21:21)

It is in this same chapter that Abraham has problems with
Abimelech, the king of the Philistines, when Abimelech's
servants steal a water well which had been dug by Abraham's
servants. They come to an agreement, and Abraham calls the
place Beersheba:

"Wherefore he called that place Beersheba; because there they
sware both of them." (Genesis 21:31)

Some of these wells were eventually filled in with dirt by
the trouble-making Philistines until the servants of Isaac
re-discovered them:

"For all the wells which his father's servants had digged in
the days of Abraham his father, the Philistines had stopped
them, and filled them with earth...And it came to pass the
same day, that Isaac's servants came, and told him
concerning the well which they had digged, and said unto
him, We have found water. And he called it Shebah: therefore
the name of the city is Beersheba unto this day."
(Genesis 26:15, 32-33)

In the following verse from the Book of Joshua, we make
another important discovery concerning Sheba and Beersheba:

"And they had in their inheritance Beersheba, or Sheba, and
Moladah," (Joshua 19:2)

So, in the above verses, we see that Beersheba and Sheba are
one and the same place, and that it was re-named this by
Isaac after his servants had re-discovered the well first
dug there by his father Abraham. The name Beersheba,
pronounced be-ayr' sheh'-bah, actually means 'well of the
sevenfold oath'. Abraham first named it this because of the
precise agreement he had made with Abimelech:

"And Abraham set seven ewe lambs of the flock by themselves.
And Abimelech said unto Abraham, What mean these seven ewe
lambs which thou hast set by themselves? And he said, For
these seven ewe lambs shalt thou take of my hand, that they
may be a witness unto me, that I have digged this well."
(Genesis 21:28-30)

Looking at any ancient map of the area found in most Bibles
will quickly confirm that Beersheba is located in a region
which was formerly the northern border of the Egyptian
Empire. In fact, at one time, it reached up to and included
Syria as well. Thus, in the following prophecy, without
using any external sources, we see that Daniel's mention of
the 'daughter of the south' and the 'king of the south' is a
reference to the leadership of Egypt. As I stated earlier,
in some Bibles, the translators have already replaced 'king
of the south' with Egypt, and 'king of the north' with
Syria. In my view, this practice can be a bit dangerous
because too much personal interpretation added in by the
translator cam pollute the Scriptures and detract from their
actual meaning and intent. I personally feel that it is
better to allow the Bible student to search the Scriptures,
comparing verse with verse, to draw their own conclusions.

Just as I suggested that the Ten Toes/Ten Horns and the
eleventh 'little horn' may represent the Beast and ten
Endtime nations, I am likewise going to suggest that the
following verses may have had a partial fulfillment in
ancient history, and then possibly a final application in
our modern day. According to one historical perspective, the
following verses may be describing the events surrounding
what are referred to as the Seleucid Wars. As I mentioned
earlier, the Seleucids were six dynastic kings who ruled
over Asia Minor and Syria from about 312 B.C. to 64 B.C.
Most notable among them was Seleucus I who ruled from about
306 B.C. to 280 B.C. The last of these six kings fell to the
Roman general Pompey who arrived at Jerusalem a year later:

"And the king of the south shall be strong, and one of his
princes; and he shall be strong above him, and have
dominion; his dominion shall be a great dominion."
(Daniel 11:5)

Following the 'Seleucid Wars' interpretation, the above
verse may be indicating that one of the princes of Egypt
would overcome the king, possibly through a coupe or
rebellion, and become much more powerful than him. This may
be a reference to Ptolemy I who began ruling Egypt upon
Alexander the Great's death. Ptolemy I ruled from about 323
B.C. to 285 B.C. In the next verse we read:

"And in the end of years they shall join themselves together;
for the king's daughter of the south shall come to the king
of the north to make an agreement: but she shall not retain
the power of the arm; neither shall he stand, nor his arm:
but she shall be given up, and they that brought her, and he
that begat her, and he that strengthened her in these times."
(Daniel 11:6)

According to some historians, in 252 B.C., Ptolemy II, the
king of Egypt, gave his daughter Berenice in marriage to
Antiochus II, then the king of Syria. This was in order to
conclude a peace treaty between the two kingdoms. It appears
though that things did not work out as planned. Berenice was
murdered in Antioch, Syria by Laodice, the former wife of
Antiochus II, thus thwarting the plans of Ptolemy II and
weakening his hand. The prophecy then continues:

"But out of a branch of her roots shall one stand up in his
estate, which shall come with an army, and shall enter into
the fortress of the king of the north, and shall deal
against them, and shall prevail: And shall also carry
captives into Egypt their gods, with their princes, and with
their precious vessels of silver and of gold; and he shall
continue more years than the king of the north. So the king
of the south shall come into his kingdom, and shall return
into his own land." (Daniel 11:7-9)

After her death, Berenice's brother, Ptolemy III, ascended to
the Egyptian throne. He declared war on the Seleucids of
Syria hoping to avenge his sister's death. He was victorious
against the Syrian king and carried off the spoils to Egypt.
It appears that Ptolemy III either outlived the Syrian king,
or else remained in power longer than him. However, this
isn't where the story ends:

"But his sons shall be stirred up, and shall assemble a
multitude of great forces: and one shall certainly come, and
overflow, and pass through: then shall he return, and be
stirred up, even to his fortress." (Daniel 11:10)

In verse ten above, it appears that the sons of the Syrian
king, possibly Seleucus II this time, assembled a great army
to come again against Ptolemy III, king of Egypt, to take
revenge for the defeat of their father. In so doing, it
appears that their mighty army passed through the land of
Israel. Whether Israel allowed this, or whether she was
pillaged during this event is not made clear. this results
in the Egyptian king doing the following:

"And the king of the south shall be moved with choler, and
shall come forth and fight with him, even with the king of
the north: and he shall set forth a great multitude; but the
multitude shall be given into his hand." (Daniel 11:11)

After this attack on Egypt by the sons of the Syrian king,
the king of Egypt, possibly Ptolemy IV, again sends his
forces to fight against the Syrian king. The Syrian sends
out a great army against the Egyptian forces, but
nevertheless, Ptolemy prevails. With this victory over the
king of the north, The Egyptian king becomes lifted up in
his pride and appears to slaughter tens of thousands as the
verse below demonstrates:

"And when he hath taken away the multitude, his heart shall
be lifted up; and he shall cast down many ten thousands: but
he shall not be strengthened by it." (Daniel 11:12)

Ptolemy's victory only lasts a few years as the king of the
north again comes against him with an even greater army than
before. This particular king of the north may be a reference
to Antiochus III the Great who was later defeated by the
Roman legions in a battle at Magnesia:

"For the king of the north shall return, and shall set forth
a multitude greater than the former, and shall certainly
come after certain years with a great army and with much
riches. And in those times there shall many stand up against
the king of the south: also the robbers of thy people shall
exalt themselves to establish the vision; but they shall
fall." (Daniel 11:13-14)

In verse fourteen above, it appears that there is also
rebellion against the Egyptian ruler from other quarters,
possibly other nations who joined Antiochus in his campaign
against Egypt. Considering that Ptolemy repeatedly defeated
the king of the north, and then continued to kill or at
least subdue tens of thousands of others, it isn't difficult
to understand why he would become unpopular. The reference
to 'the robbers of thy people' is still a bit of a mystery
to me. We know that 'thy people' must be referring to the
Jews since this is a prophecy Daniel was given regarding the
future of his own people. Some have suggested that 'the
robbers' might be referring to Jewish insurgents, but this
is not made very clear. We then read:

"So the king of the north shall come, and cast up a mount,
and take the most fenced cities: and the arms of the south
shall not withstand, neither his chosen people, neither
shall there be any strength to withstand. But he that cometh
against him shall do according to his own will, and none
shall stand before him: and he shall stand in the glorious
land, which by his hand shall be consumed."
(Daniel 11:15-16)

In the verses above we see the defeat of the Egyptian forces
by the Syrian king. The strongest Egyptian cities are taken,
and it appears that even Ptolemy's best fighters, ('his
chosen people'?), were unable to stop the Syrian. This
phrase, 'chosen people,' is commonly used to denote the
Jews, so it could also mean that the Jews sided with the
Egyptians but were still not able to withstand the Syrian
invasion. It could be for this reason that part of the
Syrian king's campaign was to also wreaks havoc in and
subdue Israel, here referred to as 'the glorious land'. In
verse seventeen, we see what appears to be a bit of inside
treachery from one of the parties involved:

"He shall also set his face to enter with the strength of his
whole kingdom, and upright ones with him; thus shall he do:
and he shall give him the daughter of women, corrupting her:
but she shall not stand on his side, neither be for him."
(Daniel 11:17)

This verse is a bit puzzling. Some have suggested that this
is referring to the king of the north, Antiochus, forming an
alliance with the king of Egypt and giving him a daughter in
marriage. The idea put forth is that she would work from
within to defeat the king of Egypt. However, according to
this interpretation, she turns against the Syrian and the
plan fails. In my view, the previous verse, (v16), implies
that the conquest of Egypt has already been accomplished, so
this interpretation doesn't make much sense, unless of
course it wasn't a total conquest. Verse sixteen ends with
the Syrian king entering Israel and pillaging it. Up until
that point, it seems to me that Israel was just being used
as a stepping stone to gain the ultimate prize: Egypt.
Perhaps verse seventeen in implying that Antiochus decides
to go in with his full force and completely take over Israel
once and for all since they have resisted him. Because of
the way the verse is written, it is difficult to tell who is
the 'he' and 'him' in each case. The part regarding
corrupting the daughter of women is still beyond my current
understanding. In the following verses we read:

"After this shall he turn his face unto the isles, and shall
take many: but a prince for his own behalf shall cause the
reproach offered by him to cease; without his own reproach
he shall cause it to turn upon him. Then he shall turn his
face toward the fort of his own land: but he shall stumble
and fall, and not be found." (Daniel 11:18-19)

After conquering, Israel, Egypt and the surrounding area,
this king of the north then sought to expand his powerbase
out into the islands of the Mediterranean Sea and possibly
further. However, it sounds as if treachery from someone
within his own ranks eventually caused his downfall when he
sought to return to his own land. Again, the details are a
bit hazy here. This might be a reference to Antiochus's
defeat by the Roman legions at Magnesia. Following the
downfall of the one we are assuming to be Antiochus III the
Great, another ruler arose who committed the grave mistake
of raising taxes, an issue which apparently didn't sit too
well with those he sought to rule. Some historians believe
this new ruler was Antiochus III's successor, Seleucus IV,
who sent Heliodorus into Israel in order to rob and
desecrate the Jewish Temple at Jerusalem:

"Then shall stand up in his estate a raiser of taxes in the
glory of the kingdom: but within few days he shall be
destroyed, neither in anger, nor in battle." (Daniel 11:20)

Following the short-lived rule of Seleucus IV, who died by
unknown means, we finally come to verse twenty-one where we
encounter the last of the six Seleucid kings, who is
believed to have been Antiochus IV Epiphanes, the brother of
Seleucus. Some say that Antiochus IV purposely won favor
with the Romans through flatteries in order to take over his
brother's position as the new king of Syria, and thus
resolve the leadership crisis which occurred at his
brother's death:

"And in his estate shall stand up a vile person, to whom
they shall not give the honour of the kingdom: but he shall
come in peaceably, and obtain the kingdom by flatteries."
(Daniel 11:21)

Those who embrace this interpretation of the Scriptures
point back to Daniel 7:8 as a confirmation that the 'little
horn' speaking great things is likewise referring to
Antiochus IV Epiphanes. As noted, I prefer to look at the
'little horn' as being the coming Beast. Considering what he
did, (described shortly), perhaps Antiochus IV Epiphanes was
a foreshadow of the Endtime Beast:

"And with the arms of a flood shall they be overflown from
before him, and shall be broken; yea, also the prince of the
covenant." (Daniel 11:22)

The historical interpretation for this verse is that through
military maneuvers, conspiracy, and whatever means were
available to him, Antiochus IV Epiphanes swept away anyone
who opposed him. This included the Jewish opposition, which
at that time is believed to have been spearheaded by the
Maccabees. The 'prince of the covenant' is believed to refer
to Jason. According to this interpretation of events, Jason
was removed as a result of the Hellenist High Priest,
Menelaus, conspiring with Antiochus IV against those Jews
who still devoutly followed the Torah. Those who support
this view claim that Daniel 8:10-11 is referring to this
same event and not to the Beast of the future. Concerning
the 'prince of the covenant', I will offer an interesting
perspective in part two of this article. The next verse

"And after the league made with him he shall work
deceitfully: for he shall come up, and shall become strong
with a small people." (Daniel 11:23)

Here again we see what some believe to be Antiochus IV's
conspiracy with Menelaus and others who helped to bring
about the downfall of Jason and traditional Jewish Temple
worship. Some also say that this view is supported by Daniel
8:25. In the second part of this article I will offer an
alternative scenario for who these 'small people' might be
in the Endtime. Verse twenty-four then goes on to describe
his tactics for winning favor with the common people by
sharing the wealth. It also tells how for a set time
Antiochus continued to expand his power base:

"He shall enter peaceably even upon the fattest places of
the province; and he shall do that which his fathers have
not done, nor his fathers' fathers; he shall scatter among
them the prey, and spoil, and riches: yea, and he shall
forecast his devices against the strong holds, even for a
time." (Daniel 11:24)

The next two verses then mention how Antiochus IV Epiphanes
went against the king of Egypt, possibly Ptolemy IV, just as
his predecessors had done. As before, this final Seleucid
king was victorious against the king of the south. It
appears that there was treachery from within the very
household of the king of Egypt which facilitated his defeat.
Whether this was a family conspiracy or just his own
military forces abandoning him, we cannot really tell; but
in either event, it resulted in many dead as the Syrian
forces invaded:

"And he shall stir up his power and his courage against the
king of the south with a great army; and the king of the
south shall be stirred up to battle with a very great and
mighty army; but he shall not stand: for they shall forecast
devices against him. Yea, they that feed of the portion of
his meat shall destroy him, and his army shall overflow: and
many shall fall down slain." (Daniel 11:25-26)

This appears to have resulted in an attempt at some type of
peace accord or treaty based on nothing but lies and
mischief by both parties. But, God is in control, and
everything transpired according to His perfect will:

"And both these kings' hearts shall be to do mischief, and
they shall speak lies at one table; but it shall not
prosper: for yet the end shall be at the time appointed."
(Daniel 11:27)

The twenty-eighth verse seems to indicate that some kind of
agreement was worked out which involved Israel. The fact
that the covenant was called 'holy' indicates it might have
had something to do with Temple worship; however, as the
previous verse indicated, although Antiochus signed or
confirmed this treaty, his heart was really not in it. After
further pillaging Israel, he returned to Syria:

"Then shall he return into his land with great riches; and
his heart shall be against the holy covenant; and he shall
do exploits, and return to his own land." (Daniel 11:28)

Sometime later, we again see Antiochus IV heading south to
plunder the land. This time however, he was met with
opposition from naval forces from Chittim, or Kittim. This
is a reference to Cyprus and is probably referring to Roman
forces. Because of this, Antiochus IV was temporarily forced
back which angered him even more and made him become further
upset with the holy covenant he had signed with the Jews and
the King of Egypt. He then conspired with others, possibly
Jews, who had also turned against the covenant:

"At the time appointed he shall return, and come toward the
south; but it shall not be as the former, or as the latter.
For the ships of Chittim shall come against him: therefore
he shall be grieved, and return, and have indignation
against the holy covenant: so shall he do; he shall even
return, and have intelligence with them that forsake the
holy covenant." (Daniel 11:29-30)

This conspiracy involving disloyal Jews resulted in another
invasion of Jerusalem and the desecration of the Second
Temple. This event is believed to have occurred in about the
year 168/167 B.C. Menelaus was set up as Antiochus's
puppet High Priest and pigs were slaughtered on the Temple
altar totally defiling it according to Jewish law. While
some disloyal Jews were won over to the Syrian king through
his smooth talking, many faithful Jews resisted and were
slain by the forces of Antiochus IV of Epiphanes. It is
believed that this incident may be what has become known as
the Maccabean Revolt recorded in the Apocrypha:

"And arms shall stand on his part, and they shall pollute
the sanctuary of strength, and shall take away the daily
sacrifice, and they shall place the abomination that maketh
desolate. And such as do wickedly against the covenant shall
he corrupt by flatteries: but the people that do know their
God shall be strong, and do exploits. And they that
understand among the people shall instruct many: yet they
shall fall by the sword, and by flame, by captivity, and by
spoil, many days. Now when they shall fall, they shall be
holpen with a little help: but many shall cleave to them
with flatteries. And some of them of understanding shall
fall, to try them, and to purge, and to make them white,
even to the time of the end: because it is yet for a time
appointed." (Daniel 11:31-35)

Having defeated the Maccabean reistance, Antiochus becomes
even more lifted up in his pride and exalts himself above
every idol and every god, including above the God of gods:

"And the king shall do according to his will; and he shall
exalt himself, and magnify himself above every god, and
shall speak marvellous things against the God of gods, and
shall prosper till the indignation be accomplished: for that
that is determined shall be done. Neither shall he regard
the God of his fathers, nor the desire of women, nor regard
any god: for he shall magnify himself above all. But in his
estate shall he honour the God of forces: and a god whom his
fathers knew not shall he honour with gold, and silver, and
with precious stones, and pleasant things. Thus shall he do
in the most strong holds with a strange god, whom he shall
acknowledge and increase with glory: and he shall cause them
to rule over many, and shall divide the land for gain."
(Daniel 11:36-39)

In the previous verses, some people have interpreted the
phrase 'God of forces' as 'God of fortresses' or 'God of
munitions', possibly meaning that he worshipped the god of
military might. As in previous verses, we are again told
that one of his policies was to divide the spoils between
those who supported and assisted him in his conquests.

It is at this point in verse forty that some eschatologists
believe that the Prophet Daniel suddenly leaves Antiochus IV
of Epiphanes in the past, and quickly zooms in on events of
our current time -- which these eschatologists believe is the
Endtime -- for the final confrontations between the last kings
of Egypt and Syria. This is because verse forty begins with the
phrase "And at the time of the end". This is referred to as the
Futurist theological perspective.

As I explain in some of my other articles, for forty years of
my life, I embraced this very same perspective, and I was quite
persuaded that certain of Daniel's prophecies regarding these
kings of the north and the south were yet to be fulfilled. But
that all began to change a number of years ago when I began to
more closely examine some of my beliefs regarding what is
commonly referred to as Endtime prophecy. Having said that,
please avail yourself of some of the articles and series which
are listed below, in order to understand my current position.

With these thoughts, I will bring this article to a close. It is my hope that you have found it informative, enlightening, and I pray that it has been a blessing in your life as well. If you have an account with Facebook, Twitter, Tumblr or with any other social network, I would really appreciate if you'd take the time to click or tap on the corresponding link that is found on this page. Thanks so much, and may God bless you abundantly!

For additional information and further study, you may want to refer to the list of reading resources below which were either mentioned in this article, or which contain topics which are related to this article. All of these articles are likewise located on the Bill's Bible Basics web server. To read these articles, simply click or tap on any link you see below.

Jesus Christ's Return: Have We Been Deceived?
In the Ages to Come
Abomination of Desolation: Explained!
Tradition or Truth? Old Wine or New Wine?
When Was Satan Cast Out of Heaven?
Who Hindered the Antichrist?
Sorry . . . Jesus is Not Coming at Any Moment
Who is Babylon the Great?
Age of Deception, Age of Delusion
The Great Tribulation and the Rapture
The Misguided End of the World Predictions of Harold Camping

Click or Tap Icons to Share! Thank you!

BBB Tools And Services

Please avail yourself of other areas of the Bill's Bible Basics website. There are many treasures for you to discover.